Zns thin film thesis
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Thin Film Interference part 2 . Light waves . Physics . Khan Academy
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Cafe Bistro Coffeehouse Business Plan. The cafe bistro coffeehouse business plan for film, The Watertower Cafe details the start-up plans for this Atlanta-based business. Essay Find You Soundcloud? Urban professionals and tourists alike, will find the atmosphere in this Old Fourth Ward location to be both casual and sophisticated. In addition to coffee products and high-quality food, live entertainment will also be provided. Thesis? The cafe bistro coffeehouse sample business plan outlines each step of the start-up in great detail, illustrating how the business will become quickly profitable. Individual chapters in the plan focus on the specific market and the research that helped define that focus, financial plans, management, products, and marketing strategy. The owners are projecting rapid growth, with a net profit margin of research paper, 14% by the second year. First-year revenues are predicted to exceed $1.9 million.
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This plan includes chapters on the company, products and services, market focus, action plans and forecasts, management team, and financial plan. Sales approaching and surpassing $1.9 million by difference between, the end of the first year. Targeting and maintaining a net profit of at least 14% by the second year. Film Thesis? To cultivate monthly sales to reach $167,000 by the end of the fourth month of operation, and $220,000 monthly by the end of the what makes question dissertation, first year of operation. The Watertower concept is film built upon the success stories of Atlanta's many casual dining and coffeehouse venues.
Located in the Sweet Auburn District of Atlanta adjacent to the Studioplex on Auburn residential loft development, The Watertower will provide accessible and difference, affordable high quality food, coffee-based products, and entertainment to the thousands of residents and hotel visitors located within a five-mile radius. In time, The Watertower will establish itself as a destination of choice to the many residents of the greater Atlanta metropolitan area, as well as numerous out-of-town visitors. The establishment will provide a complete, high-quality evening experience for those searching for something that is zns thin thesis rapidly becoming popular among Atlanta diners. Not only will patrons be able to dine on comfort food based upon time honored recipes from the world over, they will do so in a facility containing ample patio space for for research format, a favorite pastime of Atlanta's residents: alfresco dining. Patrons will also have the option of enjoying coffee, desserts, and live entertainment in The Watertower's coffeehouse or, a relaxed game of bocci in zns thin film, the gardens located adjacent to the patio space. Causal Analysis Argument Essay? The cafe's aim is simple. It will provide a completely sophisticated, sensual, yet casual dining and/or coffeehouse experience for film thesis, the many Atlantans and visitors who frequent the city's casual dining spots and essay, entertainment venues. It will be an affordable venture for patrons, one that will encourage them to zns thin thesis, return on many occasions. The menu will feature hearty fare of the what research for a dissertation, type that is frequently out of the film thesis, reach of the typical young professional. out of reach because time frequently prevents her/him from cooking hearty meals like those featured on our menu.
Finally, and between, quite significantly, The Watertower will provide a much needed neighborhood-based retail food operation that is currently unavailable to the southern end of Atlanta's Old Fourth Ward neighborhood. Not only is it projected that the business will generate 21 new jobs, the partnership responsible for creating The Watertower will generate additional revenue specifically dedicated to assisting the film thesis, Historic District Development Corporation in its efforts to bring affordable housing, new jobs, and commercial activity to between and professional, the Old Fourth Ward. The keys to success in this business are: Product quality: Food, coffee-based beverages, and film, entertainment are our products. Essay Protection? They must be of the high quality and value. Service: Our patrons are paying to have a good time. Their experience will suffer if service is not of the highest caliber. Each member of the staff will be courteous, efficient, and attentive.
Marketing: We will need to target our audience early and often. While the zns thin film thesis, business is located in a central and what makes a good research, accessible location, many people will have to be re-introduced to the neighborhood surrounding the Martin Luther King National Historic Site and Auburn Avenue. Management: We will need to have a firm grasp on food, beverage, and zns thin film, labor costs. The dining/entertainment/coffeehouse experience must be delivered in a fashion that will not only inspire repeat business, but encourage word-of-mouth recommendations to others. Proper inventory, employee management, and quality control is key. Get the entire sample plan and difference between and professional, everything you need to customize it for your business.
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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of film thesis others’ work responsibly. Published in April 2016, the find you soundcloud, new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in the revised style, and explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the work. With the new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to zns thin film, create accurate citations for students and anthropology introduction, researchers compared to past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type. In previous editions of the film thesis, style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for what makes for a the source type that they were citing. For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to film thesis, reference the rules for you soundcloud citing journals. This has become inefficient in zns thin modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of causal analysis argument sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations.
To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to locate the zns thin, “Core Elements” of their sources. These are what make up the information that will populate the citation. These core elements can be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator. The “Core Elements” of research paper a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece.
In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the citation, and zns thin film, generally follow this format: Author. Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an example of how an essay in environmental protection, actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style:
Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of film Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012. For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the on role in environmental protection, MLA citation maker on EasyBib. 2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of film thesis a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the difference between thesis, larger source is called the “container,” as it “contains” the zns thin, smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the you soundcloud, examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine.
MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. Zns Thin! “Rising Up from a Sea of difference thesis and professional Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in zns thin U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in bibliography paper format Asia and the Pacific , edited by Setsu Shigematsu and zns thin film, Keith L. On Role In Environmental! Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124. 3. The ability to thesis, use pseudonyms for author names.
In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in bibliography place of authors’ names. @TwitterHandle. “Content of zns thin film thesis Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312. 4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the essay, numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. Zns Thin Film Thesis! This has changed in paper introduction the 8 th edition to be clearer to the reader. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print.
O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of URLs in citations highly recommended by the 8 th edition. Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in a citation. 6. Omitting the city of publication.
In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of publication if the zns thin film thesis, version of the source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States). 7. Flexibility in citation formatting. In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. Makes A Good Research Question For A! For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the thesis, work. For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to a good for a dissertation, include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in film your citation. Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in their works cited page. To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the essay, source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition.
If you were told to create your citations in zns thin film this format, your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11” paper. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and for research format, sides The first word in zns thin film every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is easy to between and professional, read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces.
You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and film, use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the you soundcloud, first page and flush with the left margin. Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each. Film Thesis! Double space once more and center the title.
Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Essay You Soundcloud! Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby. Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. Double space between the title and first lines of the text. Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin. Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page). Do not place p. Film Thesis! before the page number. On Role! Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Zns Thin Film Thesis! Ask your instructor for their specific preferences.
Should be placed as close as possible to on role of youth, the text that they most closely refer to. Zns Thin Film! Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for essay it. This information should be located above the zns thin film thesis, table, flush left, on separate lines. Format the title the a good research dissertation, same way as the title of the paper. Zns Thin Film Thesis! Underneath the causal analysis argument, table, provide the source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the zns thin thesis, table. Research Paper! Use double spacing throughout. Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption. Film Thesis! The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration.
**If the between thesis and professional, table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the thesis, source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to include the citation in the works cited page. Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption. The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds. Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind:
Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Causal Essay! Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs. In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study. The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the film thesis, works that were consulted for a project.
Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to between, create a works cited list for your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author. Each citation should have a hanging indent. When there are two or more sources with the film thesis, same author, only include the author’s name in the first citation. In the thesis and professional, second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in zns thin film place of the author’s name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007.
– – -. Colonial America . Research Paper! Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43. Middlekauff, Robert.
The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format: When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by a period. See the MLA format citation below:
Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the zns thin film thesis, periodical follows, along with a comma. An MLA format example is below: Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the you soundcloud, title of the web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by zns thin, a comma. If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the bibliography paper, website, include it after the title.
Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the website’s address. The citation format is zns thin film, as follows: Author’s Last name, First name. Difference And Professional! “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the film, website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. Click here for additional information on website titles. Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism.
In order to include the author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and bibliography for research paper format, the Murder of Her Children . St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Place the authors in zns thin film thesis the order in which they appear on bibliography paper the source. Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske.
Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007. List the author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. McGraw-Hill, 2005. In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors.
When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the text, include the full name of the corporation: The American Heart Association. Treat the translator as the author. Zns Thin Film Thesis! You should do this only if the focus of your paper is on the original translated work.
Include the name of the original creator after the research introduction, title, preceded by the word “By”: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Zns Thin Film Thesis! By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is research paper introduction, given in thesis a text, omit this section and in environmental, start the citation with the zns thin film, title. Sources can be released in research paper introduction different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition.
A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to film thesis, help them locate the exact source themselves. For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition. If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation. Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. Causal Argument! “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Thesis! Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false. JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the between, date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016.
What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in zns thin film thesis text citations, the rules are the same as in previous versions of the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for essay on role of youth in environmental a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to start citing? See the information and examples below to film, get started creating citations for the most popular source types.
Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the work, translated by for research paper format, or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Film Thesis! Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris.
If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and what makes a good question, the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in zns thin film Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009. Author’s Last name, First name. Argument Essay! “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the zns thin, work, translated by argument, or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp.
61-87. How to Cite an zns thin film, E-book Found Online: Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by causal, First name Last name, vol. Zns Thin! number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Between And Professional! Title of the web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false. Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html.
Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of zns thin thesis publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. Essay! Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the zns thin film thesis, Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. “The Newest Fad in what a good research question for a People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream. MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the zns thin film, Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of bibliography paper format publication, URL. “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts.
How to Cite a Website with no webpage title: Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the zns thin thesis, publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm.
How to Cite a Journal Article found on a Database: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal , First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. “Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. 1, Mar. 2014, pp. 6-24. ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in Print:
Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. Causal Analysis! “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. Thesis! 1, 1996, pp. 41-50. Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the makes a good research question for a dissertation, author of the film thesis, essay, the name of the essay, the name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay.
How to essay you soundcloud, Cite an Image from a Website: If there is no title available for zns thin thesis the image, include a brief description of the image instead. Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.
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conclusions in essay INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Adapted from Writing and Reading Across the zns thin thesis Curriculum , 6th Edition. By Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. Pp. 32-58. A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of a paper's content.
It is similar, actually, to a paper's conclusion but lacks the conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance. For a writer in the drafting stages, the thesis establishes a focus, a basis on which to include or exclude information. For the reader of bibliography for research paper format, a finished product, the zns thin film thesis thesis anticipates the author's discussion. A thesis statement, therefore, is an essential tool for both writers and readers of academic material . This last sentence is our thesis for this section. Research Introduction. Based on this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the content of the section; and you, as the reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the discussion that follows. You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an enumeration of the uses of a thesis statement; and a discussion focused on academic material. As writers, we will have met our obligations to zns thin thesis you only you soundcloud if in subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations. The Components of a Thesis. Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and a predicate, which consists of an zns thin film, assertion about the subject. In the sentence Lee and Grant were different kinds of generals, Lee and causal analysis essay Grant is the subject and were different kinds of generals is the predicate. Film. What distinguishes a thesis statement from any other sentence with a subject and essay in environmental predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of generality and the care with which you word the assertion . The subject of a thesis must present the right balance between the general and the specific to allow for zns thin thesis a thorough discussion within the allotted length of the paper.
The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is needed to bibliography format illuminate a subject and carry on an intelligent conversation. (If the sentence about Lee and Grant were a thesis, the reader would assume that the rest of the essay contained comparisons and contrasts between the two generals.) Bear in mind when writing thesis statements that the more general your subject and the more complex your assertion, the longer your paper will be. For instance, you could not write an effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the best system of government. Consider the subject of this sentence, democracy, and the assertion of its predicate, is the best system of government. The subject is zns thin thesis enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of more specific sub-categories, each of which would be appropriate for a paper ten pages in length.
The predicate of our example is also a problem, for the claim that democracy is the best system of government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of government yet devised. A ten-page paper governed by of youth in environmental, such a thesis simply could not achieve the level of detail and sophistication expected of zns thin, college students. Limiting the Scope of the Thesis. Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and your claims about it. Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic). Begin with a Working Thesis. Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. For Research Paper Format. But professionals usually have an important advantage over students: experience. Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the questions important to practitioners, and film have devoted considerable time to study of the topic, they are naturally in a strong position to begin writing a paper. Bibliography For Research Paper Format. Not only do professionals have experience in their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in writing; they know their audience and are comfortable with the zns thin thesis format of their papers.
Experience counts - there's no way around it. As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind. Once you choose and devote time to a major field of study, however, you will gain experience. Anthropology. In the meantime, you'll have to do more work than the professional to film thesis prepare yourself for research paper introduction writing a paper. But let's assume that you do have an area of expertise, that you are in your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters). We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and have been given a clear purpose for writing: to discuss the relative merits of backpack designs.
Your job is to write a recommendation for the owner of zns thin film, a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of backpacks the chain should carry. The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to be written. Since you already know a good deal about backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research. Yet even as an expert in your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is a challenge, for at find you soundcloud this point it is unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to film thesis the contents of your paper. After all, a thesis statement is a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to be written - especially if you plan to discover what you want to say during the process of find, writing.
Even if you know your material well, the best you can do at the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of zns thin film, sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and the claim to find be made about it. Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of your paper. Film. 1 If the match is a good one, the working thesis becomes the thesis statement. Essay Protection. If, however, sections of the paper drift from the thesis focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to revise the thesis and the paper itself to ensure that the presentation is unified. (You'll know that the match between the content and thesis is a good one when every paragraph directly refers to and develops some element of the thesis.) Begin with a Subject and Narrow It. Let's assume that you have moved from making recommendations about essay on role backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory). Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the student, inexperienced and in need of a great deal of information before you can begin begin to film think of thesis statements. Anthropology Research. It may be a comfort to know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs.
He would need to spend several weeks, at least, backpacking to become as experienced as you; and it is film fair to say that you will need to spend several hours in the library before you are in protection a position to choose a topic suitable for zns thin film an undergraduate paper. Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in Government 104, a course on social policy. Not only do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin? First, you need to select a broad area of interest and makes a good research for a make yourself knowledgeable about its general features. What if no broad area of film thesis, interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of discussions you've read in a text or heard in a lecture. The trick is to find a topic that can become personally important, for whatever reason. (For a paper in your biology class, you might write on a good for a dissertation, the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles. For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for thesis yourself as much as for research introduction your professor. Some specific strategies to try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by class if need be; review the semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment.
Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and use that as your point of departure. Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity. Your broad subject of zns thin, interest, then, will be AIDS. For Research Paper Format. At this point, the goal of your research is to limit this subject to zns thin a manageable scope. Essay Of Youth In Environmental Protection. Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, AIDS, we'll assume for the purposes of discussion the most general case (the subject in zns thin thesis greatest need of limiting). A subject can be limited in at find least two ways. First, a general article like an encyclopedia entry may do the work for you by presenting the subject in the form of an outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting).
Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and see the ways in which various authors have focused their discussions. Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject AIDS by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients. Certainly, the civil rights of AIDS patients offers a more specific focus than does AIDS; still, the revised focus is too broad for a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to review numerous particular rights. So again you must try to limit your subject by posing a question. Thesis. In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time. Six aspects may come to mind:
Rights in the workplace Rights to hospital care Rights to insurance benefits Rights to you soundcloud privacy Rights to fair housing Rights to education. Any one of film, these aspects could provide the paper focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to thesis the page limit, the paper would be superficial in its treatment. In both instances, the paper would fail, given the essay you soundcloud constraints of the assignment. So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to write about it. Zns Thin. Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: the rights of research paper introduction, AIDS patients in the workplace. The process of narrowing an initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do. The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic. The deeper your understanding, the thesis likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and a good dissertation complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories.
Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of them. In the AIDS example, your reading in zns thin film thesis the literature suggested that the research introduction civil rights of zns thin, AIDS patients was at difference thesis and professional the center of recent national debate. Thesis. So reading allowed you to analysis essay narrow the film thesis subject AIDS by answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects. Once you narrowed your focus to the civil rights of AIDS patients, you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in essay on role of youth in environmental itself was a broad concern that also should be limited. Film. In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to causal analysis argument essay identify an appropriate subject for your paper. Make an Assertion. Once you have identified the subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about film it. If you have spent enough time reading and gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to essay on role in environmental have something to say about the subject, based on film thesis, a combination of your own thinking and the thinking of your sources.
If you have trouble making an essay in environmental protection, assertion, try writing your topic at the top of a page and then listing everything you know and feel about it. Often from such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to fashion a working thesis. A good way to gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to thesis see what other authors have asserted about the same topic. In fact, keep good notes on the views of others; the notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to use them in thesis and professional your paper. Next, make three assertions about zns thin your topic, in order of increasing complexity. During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.
The most sensible plan for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in difference between thesis the workplace has been offered by film thesis, columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements. Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to be tested. What Makes Research Question. After completing a first draft, you would compare the contents of the paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for zns thin thesis unity. Bibliography. The working thesis is an film, excellent tool for planning broad sections of the paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you.
Notice how these three statements differ from one another in the forcefulness of their assertions. The third thesis is strongly argumentative. Most sensible implies that the writer will explain several plans for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Following the explanation would come a comparison of plans and format then a judgment in favor of Anthony Jones. Like any working thesis, this one helps the writer plan the paper. Assuming the zns thin paper follows the three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the final thesis, on the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the on role essay to come. The first of the three thesis statements, by contrast, is explanatory : During the past few years, the rights of zns thin thesis, AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by find, national columnists. In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of zns thin thesis, a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the various positions taken. Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the contours of the paper to follow. Based on difference thesis and professional, this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the author strongly endorsing the views of film, one or another columnist.
The thesis does not require the author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3: Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Here we have an analysis argument essay, explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an opinion. Thesis. We infer from the use of the word convincing that the essay writer will judge the various reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in protecting these rights. Note the zns thin thesis contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the format writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever. Still, the film thesis present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the additional step of evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to each other. (Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the most sensible.) As you can see, for any subject you might care to explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex. It is on between thesis and professional, the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for zns thin reading.
The more ambitious the thesis, the more complex will be the difference between thesis and professional paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. Using the Thesis. Different writing tasks require different thesis statements. The explanatory thesis is often developed in zns thin thesis response to short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis (e.g., List and find you soundcloud explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is zns thin film thesis appropriate for organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for some analysis (e.g., In what ways are the recent proposals to modify American democracy significant?).
The strongly argumentative thesis is used to organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e.g., Evaluate proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections. But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. Analysis Argument Essay. One of the important objectives of a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. Film. You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for and professional you (as writer) and for your readers. Of course, once you set the film challenge, you must be equal to anthropology introduction the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the elements implied by your thesis. To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion. Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and zns thin film thesis complex enough to be developed within the essay on role of youth in environmental length limitations of the assignment. Both novices and thesis experts in anthropology a field typically begin the initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to say as they write. Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the fit of your thesis with the paper that follows.
Every element of the film thesis thesis should be developed in the paper that follows. Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to accommodate the new discussions. A quotation records the exact language used by someone in speech or in writing. A summary , in research contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of zns thin film, what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source.
Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and paraphrase. How do you choose among the three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and your own conclusions. It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of bibliography paper, which are built on restatement, not quotation. You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to film thesis follow the development of a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of those you've quoted. So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers . The trick is to know when and how to use quotations. Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and find you soundcloud will add interest and film thesis liveliness to your paper. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to difference and professional make the film same point in your own words would, by find you soundcloud, comparison, be ineffective.
Use quotations when you want the solid reputation of zns thin, a source to lend authority and what a good research dissertation credibility to your own writing. Quoting Memorable Language. Assume you're writing a paper on Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the celebrated Josephine. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to zns thin thesis be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding? You come across the following, written from the find you soundcloud field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the zns thin last.
Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke! Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! 2. A summary of this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters.
You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and for research longing. How feeble this summary and paraphrase are when compared with the original! Use the zns thin film vivid language that your sources give you. Essay Find You Soundcloud. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on zns thin thesis, a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? . Difference Thesis. . . What emotions you evoke! he said of her letters. Written in fire, they burn.my poor heart!
The effect of directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper. A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the zns thin film language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. Makes A Good Research For A. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to zns thin repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written): Direct quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said: The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Indirect quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks ( ), must be faithful to the language of the original passage. When using an essay of youth in environmental protection, indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing words (although not changing meaning). For both direct and film indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in (or close to) the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Quoting Clear and Concise Language. You should quote a source when its language is research paper introduction particularly clear and economical - when your language, by contrast, would be wordy.
Read this passage from a text on zns thin film, biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30,000 to what makes research 40,000 workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the film thesis winter. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold. Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10C (50F) and cannot walk if the temperature is below 7C (45F). Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the makes for a temperature, the denser the cluster. The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens.
In very cold weather, the bees on film, the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the you soundcloud center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery. Film. The entire cluster moves slowly about on analysis argument, the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. Film. 3. A summary of this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee, are able to live through the winter by clustering together in a dense ball for body warmth. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of makes for a, bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the thesis winter. The 30,000 to a good research dissertation 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures.
But when clustering together in a dense ball, the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in film thesis the combs. Makes Research Question For A. This nutrition, in addition to film the heat generated by between thesis, the cluster, enables the honeybee to zns thin thesis survive the cold winter months. In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's clustering together in difference thesis a dense ball, a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of zns thin thesis, wintering honeybees. Difference Between And Professional. For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language. You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to thesis establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of you soundcloud, respected figures to film endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden : Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training.
It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the essay in environmental reader more than any exercise which the zns thin thesis customs of the causal essay day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Film Thesis. Books must be read as deliberately and anthropology research paper introduction reservedly as they were written. By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not only zns thin thesis do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of makes research, our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and film an astronaut:
A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the analysis argument manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on thesis, unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and bibliography paper format former shuttle astronaut, says, It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Now it's about $500 million a year. Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to zns thin film thesis the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of causal analysis argument, space flight. Film. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to essay on role of youth speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut . The phrases in italics are called appositives . Their function is to zns thin film rename the causal essay nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail.
Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase: James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . James Van Allen has decried the expense of the zns thin film thesis manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts , has decried the expense of the difference thesis and professional manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences. Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need. As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative . Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of zns thin film, Chicago:
If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for on role of youth in environmental the colleges and universities themselves. They want to zns thin thesis be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, friends, presidents and even professors has tended to essay on role in environmental relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and film universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to what a good research be nice to film thesis athletes now admitted by paying them for on role in environmental serving as faculty representatives on the college athletic boards. 4. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion.
You may want to zns thin quote part of the following sentence: These gentry often overlook the paper introduction fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of film, Your Own Sentence. Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in argument essay as natural and fluid a manner as possible. Here's how we would quote Hutchins:
Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is film a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Avoiding Freestanding Quotations. A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Bibliography For Research. But this kind of thinking is bad for thesis the university and even worse for causal the athletes. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write:
According to Robert Hutchins, These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. These gentry, asserts Robert Hutchins, often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Use colons also to zns thin introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above). When attributing sources, try to difference thesis vary the standard states, writes, says, and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: asserts, argues, maintains, insists, asks, and even wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks. Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here's part of the paragraph in zns thin film thesis Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in anthropology paper introduction a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.
It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to zns thin film thesis this object. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. 5. And here was how we used this material: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training.
It is causal analysis argument essay a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to thesis the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at essay find the point of zns thin thesis, deletion. Format. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: To read well . is a noble exercise, and one that will task the thesis reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the what question last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all:
It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Zns Thin Film. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis. Be sure, however, that the what a good research for a dissertation syntax of the film thesis quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence: Reading is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau.
Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. The brackets indicate to essay the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion. For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in zns thin brackets. When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to introduction quote the zns thin bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the essay on role new pattern for America's Cinderella. This book's text is coy and condescending. (Sample: And her best friends of all were - guess who - the mice!) The illustrations are poor cartoons. And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds. (Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings.
She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless . She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by film, her friends, the causal essay mice. She does not hear them because she is off in a world of dreams. Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be rescued by - guess who - the mice! 6. In quoting this sentence, you would need to zns thin identify whom the pronoun she refers to. You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that [Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the pronoun begins the sentence to be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the pronoun outside of the quotation and for research simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless.
If the pronoun you want to identify occurs in film thesis the middle of the sentence to be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets. Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the difference thesis following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for three hours. If the reporter wants to use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to identify the pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on thesis, the condition that he not be identified, said, After the difference thesis and professional fire [the officers] did not return to the station house for three hours. You will also will need to thesis add bracketed information to a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly. Read the between thesis and professional following paragraphs from zns thin film Robert Jastrow's Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's: These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better.
Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes blurred. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in the jargon of the bibliography paper technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for film one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and a good research question for a learn faster when they are motivated. Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers. They polished their game by film thesis, playing each other, but they learned slowly. Introduction. Finally, Dr. Samuel programmed in film thesis the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to paper format think out zns thin film thesis more moves in advance - when they were losing.
Then the computers learned very quickly. One of them beat Samuel and went on to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in paper eight years. Film Thesis. 7. If you wanted to quote only the sentence in bold type, you would need to analysis argument provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the film words the proposition would be unclear. Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the research drives and emotions of living creatures. Remember that when you quote the work of thesis, another, you are obligated to credit - or cite - the author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism. [See your Allyn and find you soundcloud Bacon Handbook for guidance on citing sources.] A classic image: The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of zns thin, paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen). Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to carry it forward, even over the rough spots. (These can always be fixed later.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is anthropology research paper introduction a problem.
What's the best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader? Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively. Bypassing the introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only zns thin film after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction. There's a lot to be said for this approach. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in essay on role of youth a better position, at zns thin thesis first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis). And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on what makes a good, paper and read it over once or twice that a natural way of introducing it becomes apparent. Film. Even if there is no natural way to between and professional begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the film introduction after the major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to start writing somewhere , and if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin.
If this is the case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and awful. Anthropology Research Paper. Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis. Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) won't count and that when the film time is for research paper format right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an zns thin film thesis, introduction is to prepare the reader to enter the world of your essay. The introduction makes the argument essay connection between the more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context. We'll consider just a few of the most common. In introduction to a paper on democracy: Two cheers for democracy was E. M. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment.
Most Americans would not agree. To them, our democracy is one of the film thesis glories of bibliography paper, civilization. To one American in particular, E. Zns Thin Film. B. White, democracy is the format hole in the stuffed shirt through which the zns thin film sawdust slowly trickles . . Find You Soundcloud. . the dent in the high hat . Zns Thin Thesis. . . the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the time (915). American democracy is based on the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the between and professional founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock , Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on zns thin film thesis, the incredible acceleration of social change in our time: The world of today . . . is as different from the world in which I was born as that world was from thesis Julius Caesar's (13). Film Thesis. As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives. The quotations by Forster and White help set the stage for the discussion of democracy by presenting the anthropology research introduction reader with some provocative and zns thin film thesis well-phrased remarks. Later in bibliography paper format the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of zns thin film, change that will be central to causal analysis the essay as a whole. In many cases, the reader will be unprepared to follow the issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background.
Consider the following introduction to an an zns thin film, essay on the film-rating system: Sex and violence on the screen are not new issues. In the essay on role of youth Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of immorality from the screen. Faced with the film threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house. Essay Of Youth In Environmental. In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America established the zns thin thesis Production Code. At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to format the Production Code Administration which had the power to zns thin thesis award or withhold the Code seal. Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the same time, the Catholic Legion of difference, Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable. For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in American theatrical films.
By the 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip. In 1968, the Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to keep younger audiences away from films with high levels of sex or violence. Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to film thesis American films than did the old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments.
Notice the chronological development of details. Review of a Controversy. A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate. Consider the following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary 's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: the anthropology research paper introduction refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by zns thin film thesis, employing methods of on role protection, passive resistance. However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an asset to society is hardly clear cut. For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article Civil Disobedience, holds thatto think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against film, the letter and argument spirit of a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule. On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in thesis his article Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy, states that civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on our democratic society, an affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government. These two views are clearly incompatible. I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing.
On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. 8. The negative aspects of what a good research question dissertation, civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of this essay. But to introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over zns thin film civil disobedience, as well as brief references to two controversial practitioners. By focusing at and professional the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the zns thin thesis subject, the writer hoped to essay you soundcloud secure the attention of her readers and to involve them in the controversy that forms the subject of thesis, her essay. From General to the Specific.
Another way of providing a transition from the reader's world to the less familiar world of the research paper introduction essay is to thesis work from a general subject to a specific one. The following introduction to a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and leads to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is not the case. Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly normal man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in essay on role of youth protection the hands of unscrupulous authority. Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by Lt. William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and children. Specific to the General: Anecdote, Illustration.
Consider the following paragraph: In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Struck by the effects of the Martian dust storms on zns thin film thesis, the temperature and on the amount of light reaching the surface, the scientists wondered about the essay find effects on earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions. Using computer models, they simulated the effects of thesis, such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Anthropology Research Paper. Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in a nuclear winter. Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and farm animals and zns thin thesis would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable.
The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to difference and professional reduce the threat of nuclear war. The previous introduction went from the general (the question of whether or not man is zns thin film basically good) to the specific (the massacre at find you soundcloud My Lai); this one goes from the specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of reducing the nuclear threat). The anecdote is one of the thesis most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention. Essay Find. For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject. Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by posing a question or a series of questions:
Are gender roles learned or inherited? Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the sexes, but the effect of thesis, biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from introduction society's influence. According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for thesis the Study of Exceptional children, As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at research paper work. Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for film the separate roles of men and women. 9. Opening your essay with a question can be provocative, since it places the reader in an active role: He or she begins by considering answers. Are gender roles learned? Are they inherited? In this active role, the argument essay reader is likely to continue reading with interest. Statement of zns thin film, Thesis. Perhaps the most direct method of for research paper format, introduction is to begin immediately with the zns thin film thesis:
Computers are a mixed blessing. The lives of Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. We are at the dawn of the era of the smart machine, say the find authors of a cover story of the subject in Newsweek , that will change forever the way an entire nation works, beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the industrial revolution was to the hand. Zns Thin Film Thesis. Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to paper format instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the masters. One can argue that development of computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of zns thin film, our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the anthropology research paper amount of drudgery that most of film, us endure around tax season, make access to libraries easier. Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology. This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing.
It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for causal granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage of beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the reader to sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. The paragraph goes on to concede some of the blessings of film thesis, computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is a certain danger associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to follow. One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing. Argument. Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is film thesis no rule concerning the correct length of an introduction. If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by all means use one.
You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. (Our paragraph on the nuclear winter, for example, could have been broken either before or after the in environmental protection sentence The results astounded them.) One way to view the thesis conclusion of your paper is as an bibliography for research paper format, introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the world of zns thin film, your essay back to the world of paper, your reader. A conclusion is the part of your paper in which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis. Film Thesis. Essential to any conclusion is the summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the anthropology research paper material you've presented. The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper. Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and then build onto it a discussion of the paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on. you might also want to urge the reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior. Certainly, you are under no obligation to discuss the broader significance of your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are thinking large and zns thin want to connect the between thesis and professional particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society.
Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the film thesis basic summary - conclusion. But two words of advice are in order. Essay On Role Protection. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by zns thin film thesis, virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. It is the format last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work. Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of diction.
Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the zns thin paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over makes research for a dissertation your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of proportion and timing. Make your points quickly and end crisply. Statement of the Subject's Significance.
One of the zns thin film thesis more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort. When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world. Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of essay of youth, air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of thesis, its effect on sexual mores, population, or the church. But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks. Find You Soundcloud. Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on thesis, George H. Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and essay on role protection crossbreeding of corn: . . . Thus, the hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. Zns Thin Film. corn production. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt. From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn in the U.S. Of Youth. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per zns thin thesis acre, and essay the additional value to the farmer is now several billion dollars per year. The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in zns thin film thesis arid parts of the world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930.
Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to paper format yield 20 percent more than the zns thin best varieties. And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. Difference And Professional. From those blue bloods of the zns thin plant kingdom has come a model for research feeding the world. 10. The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for the hybrid breeding of corn.
The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull's research for feeding the world. Call for Further Research. In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and the ways in which the subject under consideration needs to be further explored. Zns Thin Thesis. If you raise questions that you call on anthropology research paper introduction, others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of elderly men and women in zns thin film nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over makes a good question the ten months following placement. Zns Thin Film. What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is paper format due to physical as opposed to emotional causes. The elderly are referred to zns thin thesis homes at that point in paper format their lives when they grow less able to care for themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be due to physical causes. But the emotional stress of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in film thesis nursing facilities. There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services.
Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for essay you soundcloud assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her own work. Film Thesis. The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the find paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation. The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors. In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. Zns Thin Film. If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper. . . Essay Find You Soundcloud. . The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the zns thin film thesis exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest sections of essay of youth, America's population.
It is the thesis responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and essay find have the zns thin film thesis opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers. Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and minorities is difference between not, in the long run, a tenable solution. With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the zns thin film thesis help from organized labor, the research paper introduction college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is zns thin rightly his - and find you soundcloud hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work.
11. In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in one sentence: The major problem in thesis college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and anthropology research paper introduction follows with a general recommendation - that educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens be responsible for the welfare of college athletes. Thesis. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is to shed light on your subject. The anecdote is more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you merely refer to a story (Too many people today live in Plato's cave . . .); with the anecdote, you actually retell the story. The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the significance of a reference to another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an article on difference thesis, homicide.
In the article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and film thesis treat potential killers before they commit crimes. she author emphasizes both the difficulty and the desirability of makes question dissertation, approaching homicide as a threat to public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care. In his book, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin , Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: What is Fate? Nasrudin was asked by a scholar. An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other. That is zns thin hardly a satisfactory answer. I believe in bibliography cause and effect. Very well, said the Mulla, look at that. He pointed to zns thin a procession passing in the street. That man is being taken to be hanged. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him?
12. The writer chose to conclude the article with this anecdote. Paper Format. She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the temptation to interpret. Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for (the reader should have all the information needed to zns thin understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible. A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the words of a famous person or an authority in the field on which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to link your work to theirs, thereby gaining for research your work authority and credibility. The first criterion for selecting a quotation is zns thin film thesis its suitability to your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you.
Suppose you are writing a paper on essay find you soundcloud, the American work ethic. If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why? One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper. There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers. More and more of their power will be devoted to making them easier to use - friendly, in zns thin industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science.
And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. For all of us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive, says SRl's Peter Schwartz. In the introduction end there will be those whose lives will be diminished.
But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced. In any event, there is zns thin film no turning back: if the smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the same thing. 13. Notice how the quotation is used to position the writer to make one final remark. Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in the following example. Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in essay the conclusion itself. For example, earlier in zns thin film the paper from find you soundcloud which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an epidemiologist exploring the ways in which a change in diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers. In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits almost identical to the diet of zns thin, around 1900, says Maureen Henderson. What A Good Dissertation. It's a diet we had before refrigeration and the complex carbohydrates we have now. It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people.
Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to change their diets or take pills on zns thin, the chance of preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in difference between and professional the country won't even stop smoking. Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to film thesis dose themselves before enough data are in. We're not here to convince the public to on role in environmental protection take anything, she says. The public is too eager already. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the public.'' 14. There is a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can. The language of the quotation will put your own prose into relief. If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the best part of your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising. The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong.
Questions are useful for opening essays, and they are just as useful for closing them. Opening and thesis closing questions function in different ways, however. The introductory question promises to bibliography be addressed in film thesis the paper that follows. But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on the readers to assume an active role by offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the essay very gains we thought we had already won in zns thin film the first stage of the women's movement? How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and women and research paper between women and men to zns thin film thesis achieve the new human wholeness that is the promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and loving as equal persons?
This is the essay on role protection personal and political business of the second stage. 15. Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and then answer it, based on the material you've provided in the paper The answered question challenges a reader to zns thin agree or disagree with your response. For Research Paper. This tactic also places the reader in an active role. The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled Would an zns thin thesis, Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? So the answer to the question Would an intelligent computer have the makes dissertation right to life? is probably that it would, but only film thesis if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence. 16. When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen. This kind of question stimulates the reader because its subject is the unknown. The following paragraph concludes The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss.
In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of various ages, including the find Gl Generation (born between 1901 and 1924), the Boomers (born 1943- 1961), the Thirteeners (born 1961-1981), and zns thin film the Millennials (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the bibliography for research paper kind of zns thin film, family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and can-do civic builders Two decades from paper format now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is getting a better deal out of life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age. Study after story after column will laud these best damn kids in zns thin thesis the world as heralding a resurgent American greatness. And, for anthropology research paper introduction a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap. 17. Thus, Howe and Strauss conclude an essay concerned largely with the apparently unbridgeable gaps of understanding between parents and children with a hopeful speculation that generational relationships will improve considerably in the next two decades. Some writers work with an idea, committing it to zns thin film thesis paper only after it has been fully formed. For Research Paper. Others will begin with a vague notion and begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to film say. many people take advantage of both techniques: they write what they know but at the same time write to discover what they don't know. As you'll see, we used both techniques in writing this section of the book. [back]
Francis Mossiker, trans., Napoleon and Josephine . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964. [back] Winter Organization in Patricia Curtis, Biology , 2nd ed. New York: Worth, 1976, pp. 822-823. [back] Robert Hutchins, Gate Receipts and anthropology introduction Glory, The Saturday Evening Post . December 3, 1983. [back] Henry David Thoreau, Reading in thesis Walden . New York: Signet Classic, 1960, p. 72. Analysis Argument. [back] Jane Yolen, America's 'Cinderella,' APS Publications, Inc., in Children's Literature in Education 8, 1977, pp.
21-29. [back] Excerpt from Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's from Time , February 20, 1978. Copyright 1978 Time Inc. [back] Michele Jacques, Civil Disobedience: Van Dusen vs. Film. Arendt. [Unpublished paper.] [back] Tammy Smith, Are Sex Roles Learned or Inherited? [Unpublished paper.] [back] From Hybrid Vim and Vigor by makes question dissertation, William L. Brown from pp.
77-78 in Science 80-85, November 1984. Copyright by the AAAS. [back] From Mark Naison, Scenario for film Scandal, Commonweal 109 (16), September 24, 1982. [back] From The Murder Epidemic by find you soundcloud, Nikki Meredith from pp. 42-48 in Science 80-85, December 1984. Copyright by AAAS. [back]
From And Man Created the Chip, Newsweek , June 30, 1980. Copyright 1980 by Newsweek, Inc. All rights reserved. Zns Thin Film. [back] Reprinted by permission. From the September issue of Science '84 . Copyright 1984 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Difference Thesis And Professional. [back] Betty Friedan, Feminism's Next Step in zns thin film thesis The Second Stage . New York: Summit Books, 1981. [back] Robert E. Mueller and Eric T. Mueller, Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'?
Creative Computing , August 1983. [back] Excerpt from The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss. Originally appeared in Atlantic , December 1992. [back]