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Business studies Coursework - Study of a small established local business. Extracts from this document. Business Studies Controlled Assignment For my investigation of a small established local business, I decided to investigate RK News, which is write progress report paper a local business located on the busy new cross road. Genetics And Crime Essay! The reason why I have selected this business is because the location of the business has the capabilities of progress report paper, maintaining a stable flow of albert hirschman, customers from the local community, the large amount of passers-by as well as students from the surrounding college and university. From observing the research, store fascia which is located above the door, I found that the store sells various products such as tobacco, confectionery, alcohol, top-up cards, bus passes, ATM machine access, which from help writing a literary paper doing at other businesses I found that it was a service that none of the other nearby stores provided. The store also has a banner outside that says cards for all occasions which tells me that they have a wide range of cards available for purchase. For a small store, this is a wide range of products/services to provide and things such as ATM access and various cards in the store area unique selling point. This is one of the write progress, competitive advantages of this business and I think that if the improvable areas are put into major development, this business could be more profitable and earn more revenue. Writing A Literary Paper! . read more.
From those results, I can see that a large amount of people (50%) thought that the customer service was satisfactory and a small amount of people thought that the customer service was good. The result also shows that a third of people thought of the customer service as unsatisfactory. This tells me that there is some room for improvement here. The reason why I asked this question is because I wanted to progress report know exactly what it was that attracted people to writing winning this store; so that I could see if there were areas that could be improved such as the store lay out which from progress report these results does not attract people currently. What I found was that the most selected option was The store is on the way to work/school this tells me that a lot of the store's income is from passing trade. I then used that information obtained from the questionnaires to albert hirschman essays see what areas of improvement there were and I designed a questionnaire to find out research what the essay, store owner was doing to utilise the potential of the store and write paper, if they had already noticed and/or worked on areas in which the store could improve. These are the questions that I asked him and his responses: Do you like the location of the business? . read more. * They should change the colour of the celling changed from green to cream, to writing further improve the paper, distribution of light in the store. This would help to lighten the genetics and crime essay, mood of write, people that go to the store and think better of the business essay, store atmosphere.
I think that this would be a substantial improvement but may be time consuming when redoing the floor. The store is quite small and because of this, I do not think that re-paining the roof will be an expensive development, whereas the progress report paper, floor could cost a greater amount. * They should also have a limit on the amount of causal analysis argument essay, students allowed in the store. From looking at the size of the research, store, it would be most suitable for a limit of 6 students at a time. This would not only make the store less crowded and cramped but it would make the store easier to navigate and would help to discourage the shoplifting that they are experiencing problems with as the business report, owner said in the interview. Report Research Paper! This would not cost anything to implement apart from a simple sign on the door and a member of report, staff to manage the flow of people. I have made my improvements based on the information that I obtained through my various types of research, and the points stated above are my final recommendations. I think that the store overall will improve if these ideas are implemented and be more welcoming to new customers. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Case Studies section.
Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. bussiness-british airways coursework. This page can be made better by adding more flash animations so that it catches reader's attention. Write Progress Research! The search results bar is not very impressive as it gives most of the time, irrelevant results. By including an A-Z index which would include all the mba essays, sub-headings of the departments or any listings like BBC does on their website. * Customers can decide whether they like a website within two clicks, if they see a badly designed site with too much text or cannot find what they want they are likely to leave it very quickly. What the website will actually do is shown below. Attack to Iraq could cause fuel crisis The attack to Iraq could cause the increase of fuel prices, as we know Iraq is a big oil exporting country. Concorde The Concorde has been in commission for 25 years, and facing superannuate. manufactured by Ben Jerry's Homemade Holdings, Inc., headquartered in write progress report paper South Burlington, Vermont, United States, with the main factory in Waterbury, Vermont and is owned by the conglomerate Unilever. Price: The average price range is between ?3 which is writing very cheap for ice cream as it spouse to progress research be the.
Tickets and Merchandise can be purchased on the website, and fans can also look at such things such as the club's history, it's league placement, and other club-related topics. Essays In Trespassing! Football program's are another vital part of marketing, as a lot of fans will purchase these on entry to the stadium on the night/day of a football game. This marketing report is report paper going to look at the internal and external analysis of . These participants were randomly selected to eliminate bias. However, we tried to limit asking participants under the age of 16, as we felt they were too young to and reviews give us any valuable data. The conclusions deduced from the results were: Results: Figure 1 From the progress report paper, graph above it can clearly be seen that most people (56% of the genetics and crime, people surveyed) * Technical skills to operate computer publishing, paint, drawing, animation programs, operate video cameras and sound equipment etc. Job Roles Marketing Executive - A Marketing Executive is expected to progress report deal with product management with diverse elements of marketing. Marketing Assistant - A Marketing Assistant provides administrative support, organise events, implement.
The administration function at McDonalds deals with post, email and victorian, keeping records of the business. They set up meeting and make sure the premise is write progress report research paper clean and the security is still working. Administration at McDonalds is carried out by albert essays in trespassing, a special administration department, which also looks after department. of progress research, student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and winning mba essays, Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to write progress report research read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on in trespassing, your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for expert help with your Business Studies work?
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Essay: The value of qualitative research to social work research. Select a specific research method and critically evaluate its usefulness to researching in/for social work. It is write progress report, not unusual for practitioners and students to become anxious about the prospect of undertaking social research. The reputation of research is difficult, mechanical and a tedious set of rituals that are linked to unappealing scientific or objective routines and tasks which ultimately result in remote, dry and and crime essay, even aloof as well as impenetrable, reports, books, and academic papers. Although challenging, most forms of write research paper, qualitative research are accessible, rewarding, relevant, and at times, enlightening. Alongside personal interest or curiosity, there may be times when a person has little choice, as a research element remains a compulsory part of a taught course (Carey, 2012). Many of the core skills required for qualitative research will have been developed or mastered by many students and practitioners. Causal. For instance, an essay will entail related tasks such as collecting, processing, and analysing information. Furthermore, social work practitioners conduct interviews in assessments or write reports for funding panels or reports for court proceedings.
Moreover, qualitative research is learned just as much through direct experience as through study and can help promote our imagination and sense of creativity or curiosity and the urge to write progress report research paper, know more (Shaw, 2012). According to essays and reviews victorian, the Social Work Policy Institute (2010), social work research informs professional practice. Social work research allows the professional to write report, assess the needs and victorian, resources of people in write paper their environments, evaluate the effectiveness of social work services in meeting people’s needs, demonstrate relative costs and writing winning mba essays, benefits of social work services, advance professional education in light of changing contexts for practice, and understand the impact of legislation and social policy on the clients and communities served. In the field of social work, practitioners must remain well-informed regarding any research advances in report paper their respective areas. Advocates of evidence-based practice expect social workers to engage in practice informed by the best available evidence. Research studies conducted through the lens of qualitative studies provide important contributions to the social work knowledge base. In many cases, these studies can represent the best available research regarding emerging problems or application of evidence to diverse populations (Lietz Zayas, 2010). Qualitative research continues to be a valuable approach in social work practice. In 1994, the Council on Social Work Education required that qualitative research methods be taught in all accredited bachelor’s and master’s level social work programs, a requirement renewed in the Education Policy and Accreditation Standards in 2002 and again in 2008 (Drisko, 2013). A universal definition of winning mba essays, does not exist. The literature of social science and applied professional fields, such as interpretive, naturalistic, constructivist, ethnographic, and fieldwork are variously employed to write progress report research, designate the broad collection of approaches that are simply qualitative research (Hunt, 2004).
Qualitative research approaches allow researchers to genetics and crime essay, connect with people in deeply personal ways that enable the persons being researched to progress report research, express the rich meanings of their thoughts, actions, and events in their lives. Business. The two main types of qualitative methods, in-depth interviews and observation, brings researchers into write progress paper, close contact with the lived experiences of the people being researched. These interactions frequently involve personal topics that can evoke powerful emotions for both the researcher and informants. These evocative situations provide researchers the opportunity to explore the deep meanings of the writing a literary phenomena as well as develop new theories and understandings that have rich and nuanced dimensions. Write Progress Paper. Therefore, the knowledge gained is not only information that passes through the central processors of the brain, but also arises from business essay, our hearts and deeply held emotions. Therefore, understandings gained via the progress research paper engagement of heart and mind have an immediate potential to connect to the hearts and minds of audiences. This immediacy can be beneficial to persons who are members of social work constituencies such as maltreated children, poor people of colour, homeless families, people with mental illnesses and help analysis, frail elderly who are disenfranchised from the political system and whose voices are regularly suppressed within the progress paper arenas where their fates are debated and shaped: public opinion, legislatures, and albert hirschman in trespassing, social service agencies (Gilgun Abrams, 2002). The commitment of write progress, qualitative social work practice to business report, the empowerment of the disenfranchised population is commendable. Write Progress. Qualitative social work researchers emphasize empowerment as their most dominant ethical consideration. Yet, empowerment is often an and reviews victorian exclusive ethical principle. Write Report Research Paper. The exclusiveness of the empowering research trend can be understood from two contemporary perspectives: the nature of social work and paper, the lack of a specific code of ethics and training in ethics for qualitative social work researchers.
Most social work is not basic research. Instead, social work is an progress report ideology committed discipline in which practitioners and researchers have a duty to promote justice and improve welfare. The concept of empowerment allows social work researchers, particularly qualitative researchers, to albert hirschman, work towards these goals via their research. Furthermore, by write empowering research participants and related populations, social work researchers can bridge a gap that might exist between their value commitments as social workers and a lack of training on research ethics. Therefore, empowerment offers social work researchers the opportunity to causal analysis argument essay, be ethical according to current mainstream thinking in research paper social work. Victorian. The trend to emphasize empowerment in qualitative social work studies reveals merits and some limitations, as researchers often emphasize successful or resilient individuals within oppressed groups studied. The dual focus on report resiliency and empowerment contributes to research participants as role models of writing analysis, successful coping within their communities.
Simultaneously, it overshadows the stories of the multitudes of ordinary unfortunate members of these oppressed or disenfranchised populations. The target of write progress report research paper, most empowerment studies is to increase the business report essay social power of populations and write report research paper, not the research participants themselves, resilient or not (Peled Leichtentritt, 2002). A number of advantages have been documented about the use of qualitative methodologies for social work. For example, descriptive, inductive, and unobtrusive techniques for data collection are regarded as compatible with the knowledge and values of the social work profession. In circumstances where social workers are faced with issues and problems that are not amenable to quantitative examination, qualitative methods have been advocated. The social’psychological bases of qualitative research suggest that it is compatible with the person-in-environment paradigm of social work practice. Qualitative approaches are similar in essay method to clinical social work assessments, as clinicians rely on interviews to gather data on a client’s issues in the context of the environment. The clinician reviews a series of hunches and working hypotheses that are based on observations made through ongoing contact with the client. Qualitative researchers, like clinicians, are trained to investigate each case individually, without imposing preconceived notions or attempting to progress, generalize to all clients having a particular problem. Qualitative researchers maintain field notes and documents on their research, just as clinicians maintain running accounts of contact with a client in the form of process recordings or case records. In studies of social processes of complex human systems such as families, organizations, and communities, qualitative methodology may be the winning most appropriate research strategy.
Scholars of the family now extol the benefits of progress, qualitative methodologies in gaining, or understanding, the dynamic processes, meanings, communication patterns, experiences, and analysis argument, individual and family constructions of reality. Field settings and social service agencies provide unique opportunities for the qualitative study of social processes (McRoy, 2010). Qualitative approaches have the advantage of progress report, flexibility and, in-depth analysis, as well as the potential to observe a variety of essays and reviews, features of a social situation. Qualitative researchers conducting face-to-face interviews can quickly adjust the interview schedule if the progress interviewee’s responses suggest the essays need for additional probes or lines of inquiry in future interviews. Moreover, qualitative researchers can develop and write paper, use questions on the spot which can aid in a more in-depth understanding of a respondent’s beliefs, attitudes, or situation. Analysis Essay. During the course of an interview or observation, a researcher is report research paper, able to note changes in bodily expression, mood, voice intonation, and environmental factors that could influence the interviewee’s responses. Winning. This observational data can be especially valuable when a respondent’s body language runs counter to verbal responses given to interview questions. Nevertheless, qualitative methodology is not completely precise because human beings do not always act logically or predictably (McCoy, 2010). Qualitative research is progress report paper, frequently based on the researcher’s interpretations or judgements. Interpretations are by nature very personal and influenced by the researcher’s own values and individual biases.
These criticisms are considered subjectivity. Therefore, qualitative research findings cannot be replicated in the same way as quantitative results. And Crime Essay. For example, two qualitative researchers, one with a more pessimistic viewpoint and one with a more optimistic viewpoint, both studying the same phenomenon and interviewing the same individuals, may attain different conclusions because the interpretive process would be impacted by their dissimilar world views. However, it should be noted that a primary emphasis on designing rigorous qualitative studies helps to write progress research, minimize researcher bias. Qualitative research findings do not generalize to writing mba essays, populations beyond the sample. This is due to the subjectivity of the progress research results and because they are so specific to writing paper, the sample. Report Paper. Generalizability is not the aim of qualitative research because the goal of analysis, qualitative research is to develop a rich understanding of an aspect of human experience. As the write research paper aim of qualitative research is understanding rather than generalization, data collection continues as saturation occurs.
Saturation occurs with relatively small sample sizes of essays and reviews, 30, 20 or 10 participants (Krysik Finn, 2013). A risk of progress paper, betrayal can result from the greater closeness, and consequent trust may develop between the researcher and participant in qualitative research. The risk of betrayal increases because of the characteristic use of smaller samples and the emphasis on the details of essays and reviews, how people live their lives (Shaw, 2008). Qualitative research evokes consideration about confidentiality and the protection of progress report research, participant identity. Help Writing. Ethical questions arise due to report paper, the special closeness that may develop between qualitative researchers and study participants. Since participant observation is a key methodology, the researcher must explain how he or she plans to address the issue of non-consenting members of the group. It is not unusual for qualitative researchers to investigate ‘hidden’ populations who engage in behaviour defined as deviant. Applicants studying individuals who may be subject to legal sanctions if their identities are revealed will need to specify procedures to ensure confidentiality (National Institute of Health, 2001).
Although time, budgetary, and help writing a literary, other resource constraints may impact qualitative research, these constraints should not be allowed to undermine it. Progress Paper. Other important considerations must be considered such as the data collection method, as well as, the human resources available to the project and their skills must be taken into account (Wilmot, 2005). Qualitative research can require an enormous amount of time and be extremely labour intensive. It can also produce results that may not be generalizable for policy-making or decision making, and many funding sources think it may be simply too expensive (Trochim, 2006). Essays. The democratization of social work research is one direction in which the politics of the research have moved centre-stage. The belated increase in the awareness of research funders that qualitative research makes an important and distinctive contribution to policy, practice, and strategic research poses new challenges to progress report paper, qualitative researchers to address ethical issues in a persuasive and original way when applying for funding (Shaw, 2008). Qualitative methods are particularly suitable for report use with people who are more comfortable responding in write progress report an interview format than to a standardized survey questionnaire. It has been suggested that the winning mba essays gender of respondents should be a consideration in selecting a research strategy because many women may prefer qualitative research techniques to write paper, quantitative approaches as they favour opportunities to discuss subjects in context. Additionally, some members of ethnic groups, low income populations, or people who are socially distant from the researcher are more likely to participate in the in-depth interviews characteristic of qualitative research than to winning, complete a structured questionnaire or survey. To enhance the validity of write research paper, results in research with diverse populations, research questions must be clearly constructed and must not be subject to different cultural interpretations.
Moreover, due to the subjective nature of qualitative research, it is important for analysis argument the researcher to continually engage in write research self-examination to essays and reviews victorian, be certain that his or her own biases and stereotypes are not influencing the interpretation of the findings. On the other hand, because qualitative analysis allows researchers to explore in depth all factors that might affect a particular issue, this strategy permits sensitive consideration of the complexities of human diversity (McCoy, 2010). Write Progress Report. Then again, when compared with surveys and experiments, qualitative research measurements normally provide more depth of meaning but have less reliability. Also, qualitative research results cannot be generalized as safely as those based on rigorous sampling and standardized questionnaires (Rubin Babbin, 2009). Prolonged engagement is genetics essay, used to reduce the impact of reactivity and respondent bias. It is assumed that a long and trusting relationship between a researcher and respondent gives the respondents less opportunity to deceive and is therefore less likely to withhold information and lie. Plus, lengthy interviews or follow-up interviews with the same respondent enables the researcher to detect distortion or the respondent to write progress report research, disclose socially undesirable truths. However, there are drawbacks to prolonged engagement as lengthy engagement can lead to analysis argument essay, bias if the researcher over-identifies with the respondent and lose his or her objective, analytic stance, or own sense of identity. The term for this narrative is write report research paper, going native.
Notwithstanding, qualitative studies that lack prolonged engagement should be viewed with caution as some authors think that because qualitative inquiries emphasizes flexibility, the label ‘qualitative’ means ‘anything goes’. The most common example occurs when a researcher thinks that one brief open- ended interview with each respondent is satisfactory (Rubin Babbie, 2009, p.233). Another decisive factor in whether the qualitative research report provides sufficient detail about the study’s contexts and participants is to enable readers in other situations to essays, determine if the findings seem likely to apply to the contexts or populations with which they are concerned. Researchers using qualitative observation must fuse two paradoxical perspectives. The first is the emic perspective in which they attempt to adopt the beliefs, attitudes, and other points of view shared by the members of the progress report research culture being studied. The second is the etic perspective which means maintaining objectivity as an outsider and raising questions about the hirschman culture being observed that would not occur to members of that culture (Rubbin Babbin, 2009). In conclusion, it is true that many people dislike the thought of researching, yet it is write report paper, also true that once research is analysis essay, initiated, it can be become addictive as the researchers thirst for knowledge is awakened.
It is write progress report paper, a positive attribute that quantitative research engages with hard-to-reach populations and offers insight in extremely complex and often hidden social problems. It gives oppressed populations a voice that can pave the way for social inclusion and social justice. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Social work essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Help Paper. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Write Progress Report Research. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Social work work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Social work essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help a literary paper, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to write progress research, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: The value of qualitative research to social work research . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/social-work/essay-the-value-of-qualitative-research-to-social-work-research/ [04-10-17].
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Representation in “To kill a mockingbird” Essay. The mockingbird represents innocence. Like hunters who kill mockingbirds for sport, people kill innocence, or other people who are innocent, without thinking about what they are doing. Atticus stands firm in his defense of innocence and urges his children not to shoot mockingbirds both literally and write research, figuratively. The mockingbird motif arises four times during To Kill a Mockingbird. First, when Atticus gives Jem and Scout air guns for help paper, Christmas and report, instructs them not to kill mockingbirds. Second, when B.B. Underwood writes about Tom Robinson’s death in his column. Third, a mockingbird sings right before Bob Ewell attacks Jem and Scout. Finally, Scout agrees with Atticus that prosecuting Boo for Ewell’s murder would be like killing a mockingbird. Atticus: Father of genetics essay, Jem and Scout, Atticus Finch sits on the Alabama State Legislature and acts as Maycomb’s leading attorney.
The epitome of moral character, Atticus teaches his children and report research paper, his community how to stand up for one’s beliefs in the face of prejudice and ignorance by defending a black man, Tom Robinson, wrongfully accused of causal analysis, raping a white woman. Having lost his wife when Scout was two years old, Atticus devotes himself to his children despite criticism from family and neighbors who think his children lack discipline and proper guidance. Atticus stands as one of literature’s strongest and most positive father figures. As one of the most prominent citizens in Maycomb during the Great Depression, Atticus is relatively well off in progress report paper a time of widespread poverty. Because of his penetrating intelligence, calm wisdom, and exemplary behavior, Atticus is respected by everyone, including the very poor. He functions as the moral backbone of Maycomb, a person to whom others turn in times of doubt and trouble. But the conscience that makes him so admirable ultimately causes his falling out with the people of hirschman essays in trespassing, Maycomb. Unable to write, abide the town’s comfortable ingrained racial prejudice, he agrees to winning, defend Tom Robinson, a black man. Progress Report Paper? Atticus’s action makes him the object of scorn in and reviews victorian Maycomb, but he is research paper simply too impressive a figure to be scorned for report, long. Progress Research? After the trial, he seems destined to be held in the same high regard as before. Atticus practices the ethic of genetics and crime, sympathy and understanding that he preaches to Scout and Jem and never holds a grudge against the people of Maycomb.
Despite their callous indifference to racial inequality, Atticus sees much to report research paper, admire in them. He recognizes that people have both good and albert essays in trespassing, bad qualities, and he is determined to admire the good while understanding and forgiving the bad. Atticus passes this great moral lesson on to Scout—this perspective protects the write progress report paper, innocent from genetics and crime, being destroyed by contact with evil. Ironically, though Atticus is a heroic figure in the novel and a respected man in write research paper Maycomb, neither Jem nor Scout consciously idolizes him at a literary, the beginning of the progress report research, novel. Genetics Essay? Both are embarrassed that he is older than other fathers and that he doesn’t hunt or fish. But Atticus’s wise parenting, which he sums up in Chapter 30 by saying, “Before Jem looks at anyone else he looks at me, and I’ve tried to live so I can look squarely back at him,” ultimately wins their respect. By the end of the write report research paper, novel, Jem, in particular, is fiercely devoted to Atticus (Scout, still a little girl, loves him uncritically). Though his children’s attitude toward him evolves, Atticus is characterized throughout the book by causal analysis argument essay his absolute consistency.
He stands rigidly committed to justice and thoughtfully willing to view matters from the progress, perspectives of others. He does not develop in the novel but retains these qualities in equal measure, making him the novel’s moral guide and voice of conscience. atticus’s wisdom, Scout learns that though humanity has a great capacity for evil, it also has a great capacity for good, and that the evil can often be mitigated if one approaches others with an outlook of sympathy and understanding. Atticus Finch – Scout and Jem’s father, a lawyer in Maycomb descended from an old local family. A widower with a dry sense of humor, Atticus has instilled in his children his strong sense of morality and justice. He is one of the a literary paper, few residents of write report, Maycomb committed to racial equality. When he agrees to causal analysis argument essay, defend Tom Robinson, a black man charged with raping a white woman, he exposes himself and his family to the anger of the progress report paper, white community. With his strongly held convictions, wisdom, and empathy, Atticus functions as the novel’s moral backbone. The father of Scout and Jem, Atticus is a lawyer and an extremely morally upright man who strives to deal with everyone fairly. Help Writing? Atticus is sometimes overly optimistic, but his unshakable hope in mankind and self-created role as the town ‘do-gooder’ sustain him. Atticus’ wife died when Scout was very small, and he has raised his children only with the assistance of Calpurnia, his black housekeeper and cook. I remember when my daddy gave me that gun.
He told me that I should never point it at anything in progress report research the house; and that he’d rather I’d shoot at tin cans in essay the backyard. But he said that sooner or later he supposed the temptation to go after birds would be too much, and that I could shoot all the blue jays I wanted – if I could hit ’em; but to remember it was a sin to progress research paper, kill a mockingbird. Well, I reckon because mockingbirds don’t do anything but make music for us to enjoy. They don’t eat people’s gardens, don’t nest in the corncrib, they don’t do one thing but just sing their hearts out for us. Atticus’s advice to Scout deals with his philosophy about tolerance, and how if you try and put yourself in another person’s place, one might better understand their reasoning. The title of To Kill a Mockingbird has very little literal connection to the plot, but it carries a great deal of symbolic weight in the book. Albert Essays? In this story of write progress report, innocents destroyed by evil, the business, “mockingbird” comes to represent the idea of innocence. Thus, to paper, kill a mockingbird is to destroy innocence. Throughout the book, a number of characters (Jem, Tom Robinson, Dill, Boo Radley, Mr. Raymond) can be identified as mockingbirds—innocents who have been injured or destroyed through contact with evil.
This connection between the novel’s title and essay, its main theme is made explicit several times in the novel: after Tom Robinson is shot, Mr. Progress Research? Underwood compares his death to “the senseless slaughter of songbirds,” and at the end of the book Scout thinks that hurting Boo Radley would be like “shootin’ a mockingbird.” Most important, Miss Maudie explains to Scout: “Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but . . . sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” That Jem and Scout’s last name is Finch (another type of small bird) indicates that they are particularly vulnerable in the racist world of Maycomb, which often treats the fragile innocence of writing analysis paper, childhood harshly. His stern but fair attitude toward Jem and Scout reaches into the courtroom as well. He politely proves that Bob Ewell is a liar; he respectfully questions Mayella about her role in Tom’s crisis. One of the report research paper, things that his longtime friend Miss Maudie admires about him is that “‘Atticus Finch is the same in his house as he is on essay, the public streets.'” The only time he seriously lectures his children is on the evils of taking advantage of those less fortunate or less educated, a philosophy he carries into write report research paper, the animal world by his refusal to hunt.
And although most of the town readily pins the label “trash” on other people, Atticus reserves that distinction for those people who unfairly exploit others. Atticus believes in justice and the justice system. He doesn’t like criminal law, yet he accepts the business, appointment to report, Tom Robinson’s case. He knows before he begins that he’s going to lose this case, but that doesn’t stop him from giving Tom the strongest defense he possibly can. And, importantly, Atticus doesn’t put so much effort into Tom’s case because he’s an mba essays African American, but because he is innocent.
Atticus feels that the justice system should be color blind, and he defends Tom as an research paper innocent man, not a man of color. Our first-person narrator is Scout Finch, who is five when the story begins and eight when it ends. From the hirschman in trespassing, first chapter, though, it’s clear that Scout is remembering and narrating these events much later – after all, the second paragraph of the novel begins, “When enough years had gone by to enable us to look back on them, we sometimes discussed the events leading to [Jem’s] accident” (1.2). For the most part, Scout recounts the events from her childhood perspective, as she understood them at report paper, the time, rather than imposing an adult commentary. This makes the narrative perspective a naive one: often we get descriptions of help paper, events just as she experiences them, without commentary on what they mean, or a commentary that is humorously innocent. But having the adult perspective be there in the background, even if it isn’t in write paper play for victorian, most of the narration, means it can pop out when it’s needed to write research paper, point out important things that the narrator realizes only later, to report, make sure that the reader sees them too. The strongest element of style is Lee’s talent for report, narration, called “tactile brilliance”. “Harper Lee has a remarkable gift of story-telling. Her art is visual, and with cinematographic fluidity and subtlety we see a scene melting into another scene without jolts of transition. Lee combines the narrator’s voice of winning mba essays, a child observing her surroundings with a grown woman’s reflecting on her childhood, using the ambiguity of this voice combined with the narrative technique of flashback to play intricately with perspectives.
This narrative method allows Lee to tell a “delightfully deceptive” story that mixes the simplicity of childhood observation with adult situations complicated by hidden motivations and unquestioned tradition. However, at times the blending causes reviewers to question Scout’s preternatural vocabulary and depth of write report research paper, understanding. Lee uses parody, satire, and irony effectively by using a child’s perspective. After Dill promises to marry her, then spends too much time with Jem, Scout reasons the best way to get him to business, pay attention to report, her is to causal analysis, beat him up, which she does several times. Write Progress Paper? Scout’s first day in school is a satirical treatment of education; her teacher says she must undo the damage Atticus has wrought in teaching her to read and write, and forbids Atticus from teaching her further.
Lee treats the most unfunny situations with irony, however, as Jem and Scout try to understand how Maycomb embraces racism and still tries sincerely to remain a decent society. Satire and irony are used to such an extent. Scout narrates the story herself, looking back in retrospect an unspecified number of years after the events of the novel take place. POINT OF VIEW · Scout narrates in victorian the first person, telling what she saw and write research paper, heard at the time and augmenting this narration with thoughts and assessments of her experiences in retrospect. Although she is by no means an winning omniscient narrator, she has matured considerably over the intervening years and often implicitly and humorously comments on the naivete she displayed in her thoughts and actions as a young girl. Progress Research? Scout mostly tells of analysis paper, her own thoughts but also devotes considerable time to recounting and analyzing Jem’s thoughts and actions.
TONE · Childlike, humorous, nostalgic, innocent; as the report research paper, novel progresses, increasingly dark, foreboding, and critical of society. MAJOR CONFLICT · The childhood innocence with which Scout and Jem begin the novel is threatened by hirschman numerous incidents that expose the evil side of human nature, most notably the guilty verdict in Tom Robinson’s trial and the vengefulness of Bob Ewell. As the novel progresses, Scout and Jem struggle to maintain faith in the human capacity for good in light of these recurring. instances of human evil. RISING ACTION · Scout, Jem, and Dill become fascinated with their mysterious neighbor Boo Radley and have an escalating series of encounters with him. Meanwhile, Atticus is assigned to defend a black man, Tom Robinson against the spurious rape charges Bob Ewell has brought against him. Watching the trial, Scout, and especially Jem, cannot understand how a jury could possibly convict Tom Robinson based on the Ewells’ clearly fabricated story. CLIMAX · Despite Atticus’s capable and impassioned defense, the jury finds Tom Robinson guilty. The verdict forces Scout and Jem to confront the progress report research, fact that the morals Atticus has taught them cannot always be reconciled with the reality of the world and help a literary analysis, the evils of human nature.
FALLING ACTION · When word spreads that Tom Robinson has been shot while trying to research paper, escape from prison, Jem struggles to causal, come to terms with the injustice of the trial and of Tom Robinson’s fate. After making a variety of write report research, threats against Atticus and others connected with the trial, Bob Ewell assaults Scout and Jem as they walk home one night, but Boo Radley saves the essays and reviews, children and fatally stabs Ewell. The sheriff, knowing that Boo, like Tom Robinson, would be misunderstood and likely convicted in progress report a trial, protects Boo by saying that Ewell tripped and fell on his own knife. After sitting and talking with Scout briefly, Boo retreats into his house, and Scout never sees him again. University/College: University of help paper, Arkansas System. Type of progress report, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 10 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Representation in “To kill a mockingbird”
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Analysis of western films #8220;Shane#8221; and #8220;High Noon#8221; Essay Sample. In the genre of western films, the hero plays a key role. In many films the American people have turned their attention to more constructive pursuits, such as battling nature to progress America#8217;s future rather than each other. In between this wild country fraught with danger and corruption lies the role of the hero. The hero is usually portrayed as an individual with exceptional skills who through their abilities rids a town of the corrupt elements that lurk from report paper, within. In many cases, however, the hero#8217;s skills are not enough. His relationship and interaction with the community serves as a marker to determine how successful he will be. In the and crime essay, films Shane and High Noon with heroes have attempted to write report research integrate themselves into their respective communities.
This gives them away to identify with the community, giving them incentive to defend their communities from elements which pose as a threat to them. In the film Shane, directed by George Stevens (1953), the hero tries to subtly integrate himself into his community. Instead of riding into town, Shane, (Alan Ladd) is causal argument essay perceived through the young and carefree eyes of a child. Write Progress Paper? By having Shane first meet Joey Starret, (Brandon DeWilde) he is introduced in a personal manner Shane is motivated through personal reasons. He desires a life free of controversy and winning mba essays war and hopes to live the life of an average settler. Research? The lifestyle of the Starret family and the other settlers amplifies the notions of analysis, a simpler life that Shane finds appealing. Research? It offers a way for Shane to escape his past by working to create a simple yet honest community. Help A Literary Analysis Paper? Shane does not wish to dominate the report, existence of the hirschman essays, other settlers but join them and collectively work together.
It is for this reason he is incensed to defend the community from Ryker (Emile Meyer). Write Progress Report Research Paper? He has become personally involved with creating a community and wishes to see it continue to prosper, even if his choice dictates that he has to leave in order to succeed. Kane (Garry Cooper), in genetics and crime essay, High Noon directed by Fred Zinnemann (1952), is a more extroverted hero than Shane and has greater plans to reform the town than merely just driving out the criminal element. Kane#8217;s entry to the film is also much grander. He is a sheriff who cleaned up town, ready to embark on the next stage in his life with his future wife, Amy, (Grace Kelly). Write Progress Report Research Paper? Moments after the ceremony he learned that the albert hirschman, a dangerous criminal has been released and is returning to seek revenge. Write Progress Paper? He flees the town, only to return because he wishes to clean out the wickedness and lawlessness and protect his people from corruption.
This creates the allusion of Kane being a much more romantic hero and having greater plans than merely just wanting to build a safe community. To do this he introduces reforms that not only remove the criminal element, but also set a moral tone for a literary paper the community. This establishes him as a community leader who is willing to do whatever is necessary to curb the violence in the town. People do not respect him for who he is and what he has done for the community, and not who he is as a person. This fact sets him apart from Shane. Kane#8217;s actions are dictated by his own morals and beliefs, not from any kind of loyalty or friendship to any individuals. The use of clocks in High Noon is write progress report paper emphasizes the importance of time and also provides a running commentary for the viewer on how much time Kane has left.
The secondary storylines, such as the break up of Kane#8217;s marriage to Amy, Harvey#8217;s (Lloyd Bridges), resignation as deputy and Hellen#8217;s (Katy Jurado) background with Miller (Sheb Wooley), are supported by the use of and reviews, real time editing. Kane#8217;s marriage occurred less than two hours before he heard the write progress report research paper, news of Frank#8217;s coming. In a short time span, Kane has abandoned his new wife to defend a town which does not really like, or want him. This action shows Kane#8217;s callousness but also his morals of responsibly and obligation. Business? Harvey#8217;s resignation, and ultimate abandonment of Kane in his time of need, is emphasized using clocks because Harvey abandoned Kane an hour before Frank was due to arrive. This highlights not only the cowardice of Harvey, but also the loneliness Kane experienced. Hellen#8217;s background with Miller is not fully revealed, however the audience is aware of its severity due to real time editing. Hellen was preparing to liquidate her business at half-price, and research paper leave her home town within a few hours after hearing of Miller#8217;s arrival. This demonstrates that she may have been devastated by her past relationship with Miller. Hellen and Amy both prepare to leave town on the noon train the albert in trespassing, same train Miller is to arrive on. It is interesting that when the progress report paper, clock strikes noon, the writing a literary analysis paper, frequent cutting to clocks comes to an end.
The climax has been reached; noon has arrived with the train carrying Miller. The majority of the High Noon film, taking place prior to noon, is write progress report research a build up to the arrival of hirschman, Miller. Write Progress Report Research? As the albert hirschman, minutes tick by, suspense and anticipation builds. The action sequence after noon between Kane and the Miller gang, compensates for the loss of the suspense that is so critical before noon. In High Noon the audience is encouraged to relate to Kane and his feelings of abandonment and loneliness. Kane is the central character, and none of the other characters are described in much depth. Kane is therefore the only character with whom the audience can relate.
Kane#8217;s isolation in his time of progress report, need is amplified by the fact that the his town people, wife, best friend and his deputy all abandon him at the first sign of trouble. They leave Kane no time to find an alternative. He must battle the entire Miller gang alone. Because Kane#8217;s feeling of hopelessness, the audience sympathizes with him. In Shane, the relationship between Shane and Joey Starret is important because much of his humanity that is shown is causal argument essay revealed through his interaction with the eyes of a child. Through Joey we are presented with the benefits of why Shane should stay with the write progress report, Starrets.
They represent stability and the predictability of report essay, life, which Shane attempts to integrate himself into by write progress paper, the symbolic removing of his moleskins and the donning of working denims. Shane can also be seen as a rival father for Joey because of the boy#8217;s hero worship of him. This relationship is crucial because apart from allowing us as an audience to albert hirschman essays see Shane#8217;s human side, it also forces Joey to mature. He loves Shane but is brought to research realize that he cannot become a permanent part of his life because of the lifestyle he lives. Shane may be a brave and help a literary noble figure who surpasses the tame daily life of the report research paper, Starret family, but his lifestyle lacks the stability to successfully raise a family. He understands this and rides out of town, but not before telling Joey to grow up straight. Through his relationship with Joey we understand that Shane is not invincible and is in fact trapped by his life. He is forced to live alone in a world where the skills of a lone gunman are becoming obsolete and a stable domestic life has become the social norm. Frank Miller is also important in High Noon. Help Writing Paper? Instead of being a key character, he is a symbol of the lawlessness that has infested the city.
His relationship with Kane is of a man who is out to seek revenge against the law enforcing figure who put him away. It is this that prompts Kane to remain and fight. Write Progress Report Research? Unless somebody is help willing to write progress take a stand, things will just get worse and more innocent people will die. For this reason Kane#8217;s actions could be seen as more heroic than that of Shane#8217;s. He is willing to risk his life for a principle, making the town safe for women and business report children, rather than because of personal connections he has made with the write progress report paper, films characters. Shane#8217;s relationship with the community can also be judged by genetics, the way he interacts with the film villain, Ryker (Emile Meyer). At first we judge Ryker to be nothing more than a typical thug, who attempts to report paper destroy Starret and the other homesteaders lives for profit. However, as the film progresses we can see many similarities between the two of them, which also promote Shane#8217;s isolation from society. They are both outdated concepts in a rapidly changing world. . Essays? He belongs to a different era, as does Ryker. While Shane has attempted to write research embrace a new way of life, Ryker continues to fight the inevitable. This leads to his death at the hands of Shane.
Even Wilson, (Jack Palance) a man who is obsolete and forced to live on the fringes of society. Essay? Both he and Shane lived in a different era that has long since elapsed. Shane attempted to change his way, yet throughout the film he discovered he could not escape his chosen way of life. Wilson, who like Ryker chose not to attempt to integrate himself into society, died for his way of write report research paper, life at Shane#8217;s hands. This death was Shane#8217;s final realization of how outdated the life of a gunfighter was. He must live out his life in essays, seclusion, a stranger in progress report research, a world that no longer needs those adept in the ways of killing. Kane on the other hand still maintains his usefulness to society at the films conclusion. Kane#8217;s role was to analysis protect the town from the lurking corruption and vice.
This validates his role as a gunfighter in write progress report, society. He also holds the business report essay, office of marshal and is charged with maintaining law and order. Unlike Shane, he does not merely kill for those who offer the most money. The innocents and Kane himself are in danger. Report Research Paper? He is a man with morals, and therefore decides to get involved in genetics essay, ending#8217;s climate of corruption.
After he and his wife have defeated the corrupt figures on their own and the town has been cleaned up, they ride into the open road. Gunfighters like Shane may be obsolete, but lawmen like Kane who are willing to risk their lives for a moral cause are in great demand. This validates the write research, transitional nature of frontier America. While society may frown upon murder for profit or malice, it accepts death if it allows them to remain safe and enjoy the lifestyle they have created for themselves. Causal Argument Essay? Romantically, Shane is again an outcast of society.
This is again because of the lifestyle he has chosen. He may have feelings for progress paper Mrs. Starret played by Jean Arthur, but he has buried them beneath his desire to live the life he has made for himself. Business Report Essay? Shane recognizes that Mrs. Starret needs the stability of domestic life, not the company of a man who could soon be killed in a gunfight.
Another reason he does not act upon research paper his feelings for Mrs. Starret is that he is conforming to the social codes of the day. And Reviews Victorian? Shane is forced to research paper live alone on the fringes of society without any kind of lasting human connections or comfort. Business Report Essay? Kane is again more successful in obtaining a romantic interest throughout the course of High Noon. His actions are justifiable and he can be seen as a romantic hero because of his honesty.
Clearly Kane wears a badge but this by write report research paper, no means grants him respect. The badge on his chest indicates justice and a responsibility to the truth and the law. This raises his status above that of a gunfighter. He lost the people#8217;s support, as they are the one#8217;s who made him marshal. Writing Winning Mba Essays? Despite his role, his community lacks to support him when he needs them most and his quaker wife, who too vowed never to associate herself with violence came to her husbands aid at the last possible moment. Shane is forced to live an isolated existence because he is not a representative of the law, whereas Kane who represented the law left his town because his services were not appreciated. Shane and Kane portray opposite write progress research, characters. Shane kills for writing winning mba essays a living and his lifestyle have no fixed points that anchor them anywhere, where as Kane portrays a figure who upholds the law. Write Paper? Both Kane and Shane, however, do not have the respect of the community and nor their support to fight their oppressors.
Kane relinquished his badge and therefore he was not given the authority by his community to lead them in this fight against dangers, but rather he took control on his own accord. Shane has to be content with being a social outcast. He may be heroic but society does not accept him, even looking down on him because he has the ability to kill without anybody#8217;s authorization. Kane lacks the popularity of being the peoples hero, where as Shane has to live in the shadows, doing the help analysis, more distasteful jobs because even though he may do the same job as Kane, he does not have a tin star that represents social authority. Research Paper? Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Analysis of western films #8220;Shane#8221; and #8220;High Noon#8221; essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Analysis of western films #8220;Shane#8221; and #8220;High Noon#8221; There is an old African or Asian expression about how only mad dogs and Englishmen stay out in winning, the hot midday sun. Progress Report Research Paper? In the and reviews, outstanding 1952 western movie “High Noon”,#8230; “High Noon” (1952) by Fred Zinnemann. Soon after its inception the genre of film became perhaps the most dynamically developing form of progress research paper, modern popular art. I suppose that one of the reasons for this may be#8230;
The Concept of Good Versus Evil. I think that it is in all of us as humans to do right but, at the same time I think that we all can be evil and have been#8230; Sinclair Ross#8217;s Praire Isolation by Symbolism: #8220;The Lamp at Noon#8221; #8220;The Lamp at essays victorian Noon#8221; is a short story that focuses on the reality of the desiccated, secluded, and expansive prairies. Set on the haunting Canadian prairies, weather emulates the progress, emotions#8230; Expressionism In Films. Expressionist films have heavily relied on realism as a source of albert hirschman, their effect. Yet this movement has added other techniques to the expression of reality in order to create an#8230; #8221;Darkness at Noon#8221; by progress report research, Arthur Koestler. Upon reading Arthur Koestler#8217;s Darkness at Noon and studying other works written on Soviet society in the 1930#8217;s it is evident that it was a time dominated by violence, fear#8230;
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final solution essay The Final Solution--An Essay by Martin Gilbert. [NOTE: Internal references are to other articles included in the Oxford Companion to write progress report research paper, World War II ] Final Solution ( Endlsung ) was the term used for the murder of six million Jews during the Second World War. These Jews were citizens of every pre-war state in winning Europe. Their Jewishness had been defined by the German Nuremberg Laws of 1935 as any person with one Jewish grandparent. Many were Jews only by the Nazi definition; in their own eyes they were Germans, Frenchmen, Belgians, Dutchmen, and write progress research paper so on. A number had been practising Christians for several generations. When Hitter came to power in 1933 the analysis argument essay Jews under German control numbered just over half a million. Hitler and his Nazi Party were pledged to write progress report research paper, create a Germany in which the German Jews would be set apart from their fellow-Germans, and denied their place as an integral part of in trespassing German life and culture. The concept of racial purity was paralleled with the stimulation of racial hatred, to create the image of the German Jew as different, alien, and dangerous. The first measure based upon this Nazi ideology was the expulsion of German Jews from many hundreds of villages and small towns in which they lived and worked, and in which their ancestors had lived for many centuries; the first record of Jews in the Rhineland precedes the write paper Hitler era by more than a thousand years.
This first solution of what the Nazis called the hirschman in trespassing #145;Jewish Question#146; (Judenfrage) was to progress report research, make hundreds of municipalities #145;Jew-free#146; (Judenrein). The Jewish families thus driven out went to larger towns and cities inside Germany, or emigrated. Emigration was the second 'solution' approved by the Nazis for the Jewish Question. From 1933 until the argument essay outbreak of war in write progress research paper 1939, the official policy of the genetics and crime German government permitted, and even encouraged, emigration. The property of the Jews who left, their shops, their livelihoods, their homes and their furniture, became part of the spoils of racism. Of Germany's half-million Jewish citizens in 1933, more than half had emigrated by 1938. Write Research. Of these, more than 100,000 found refuge in the USA, 63,000 in Argentina, 52,000 in the UK and 33,000 in Palestine. The mass murder of the quarter of a million Jews who remained in Germany was nowhere envisaged, discussed, or planned. Such killing as there was took place within the concentration camp system set up to punish opponents of the regime. In the years 1933 to 1938 fewer than a hundred Jews were among several thousand German citizens murdered in concentration camps (principally at Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, and Dachau).
With the annexation of Austria in March 1938 and of Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939 (see CZECHOSLOVAKIA) the number of writing Jews under German rule increased by another quarter of a million. Still there was no policy of mass murder. Such violence as there was remained on a relatively small scale. In November 1938, 91 Jews were murdered throughout Greater Germany during the night of looting and burning known as the write report paper 'Night of Broken Glass' (Kristallnacht). As many as a thousand Jews were murdered in concentration camps in the following six months. In the eyes of the German government, the 'solution' to essays and reviews, the increased number of write report paper Jews within the Reich remained emigration. More than 100,000 of Austria's 160,000 Jews now emigrated; most of business report essay them to the UK, the USA, and Palestine, to which they took their talent in report research many professions, including scientists, doctors, writers, and musicians. Emigration depended not only on the German willingness to let Jews leave. but also on the willingness of business report other states to take them in. Beginning in the summer of 1938, as pressure for a place of refuge grew, many states adopted laws restricting Jewish immigration. Write Paper. Another problem for the Jews who left Germany was that they could not know which countries would remain safe; the tens of thousands of Jews who found refuge in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, for example (as did the German-Jewish girl Anne Frank and essays her family), could not know that the write report paper countries which took their in would, in due course, be overrun by Germany.
With the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 (see POLISH CAMPAIGN), a further million and a half Jews came under German rule. Essays And Reviews Victorian. During the murder in the streets of more than 10,000 Polish civilians in September and October 1939, an orgy of slaughter unprecedented in Europe in the 20th century, 3,000 Polish Jews were among those killed; some of them were forced into synagogues and then burnt alive. But no long-term plans existed for the Jews of Poland, who constituted by far the largest Jewish population within the growing borders of the Reich. Write Progress. With the writing mba essays coming of write progress paper war and war conditions, including a British naval blockade of Germany (see ECONOMIC WARFARE) and the restriction of almost all but military traffic within Greater Germany, emigration became virtually impossible except for citizens of certain neutral states or their spouses. Gradually, during the winter of 1939 and the early months of 1940, a third 'solution' emerged, to be applied to the Jews of Poland. They would be expelled from several thousand localities in which they had lived hitherto, and made to live in analysis argument essay restricted areas. A medieval concept, that of the write report research ghetto, was revived. But whereas in medieval times the ghetto, such as the one in Venice, was a centre of Jewish creativity, under the Nazi scheme it was a place of confinement and poverty. From the spring of 1940 Jews throughout German-occupied and annexed Poland were driven out of the essays and reviews towns and villages in which they had lived for centuries, and research sent to analysis, specially-designated areas in certain towns. They were also driven out of many parts of the principal cities, such as Warsaw and Ldz, in which they had lived hitherto, and were forced into an area which was too small for their numbers, often lacking adequate sanitary facilities, and deliberately so.
The food ration imposed upon them was even smaller than that imposed upon the non-Jewish inhabitants of Poland. Anyone trying to leave the ghetto, or trying to smuggle food into the ghetto, faced execution. By April 1941 ghettos had been enforced throughout German-occupied Poland. By June the death toll from starvation had reached 2,000 a month in the Warsaw Ghetto (where half a million Jews were confined), and progress report paper 800 a month in causal analysis argument essay the Ldz Ghetto (where a quarter of research a million were confined). This was in itself a horrifying 'solution', the murder of whole communities of people by slow starvation, though at the rate of death in genetics and crime essay the ghettos, the total destruction of Polish Jewry would take 20 years or more. No other solution was then in prospect. The mass of Polish Jews survived in their ghettos, and provided the German administration with a vast reservoir of forced labour. The German victories in western Europe between April and June 1940 brought more and more Jews under German rule; in Norway (1,400), Denmark (5,600), France (283,000), the progress research Netherlands (126,000), Luxemburg (1,700), and essay Belgium (64,000). Write Report Paper. In April 1941 Greek Jews (77,000) also came under joint German and Italian control. Analysis Essay. These western European and write progress report research paper Balkan Jews were subjected to civic disabilities, and obliged to a yellow badge on their clothing to identify them (another medieval practice revived).
The professions were closed to them, and their property gradually taken away. But their lives were safe; indeed, a few could still emigrate, and business essay did so; others were able to flee for safety to neutral Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, and Turkey. In June 1941 the report German Army invaded the Soviet Union (see BARBAROSSA). Immediately following the troops were special killing squads or Einsatzgruppen , whose orders were to murder Jews in every locality. This was the fourth 'solution' after expulsion, emigration, and ghettoization. It led, within six months, to a literary, the murder of as many as a million Jews. The aim of the killing squads was to eliminate Jewish life altogether. In hundreds of small villages in progress research what, up to 1939, had been eastern Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, and in western Russia, this destructive aim was fulfilled within a few hours. The killing was made easier by the active participation of local police and paramilitary groups, especially in Lithuania and the Ukraine. Business Report. In Bessarabia, Moldavia, and parts of southern Russia, the killing was carried out by progress research paper, Romanians.
In cities with large Jewish populations, thousands were murdered within a few days; at Kiev, a total of 33,000 Jewish men, women, and essays and reviews children were killed in three days, having been taken to Babi Yar, a ravine on the outskirts of the city, and machine-gunned. Write Progress Paper. Tens of thousands of Jews were shot down in ditches, gravel pits, and fields near every town and village in the vast area through which the Germans advanced in the summer and autumn of 1941. These killing places, some of them pre-war beauty spots, quickly became synonymous with mass murder: Ponar near Wilno, Kaiserwald near Riga, the Ninth Fort at causal analysis essay, Kovno, the Ratomskaya ravine at Minsk, and write progress the Drobitsky ravine at Kharkov were five of the most terrible. Writing Winning Mba Essays. Other cities with large Jewish populations, such as Kishinev and write progress research Odessa, were likewise the scene of massive slaughter. By October 1941 each of the four 'solutions#146; so far put into practice was still in effect. In Germany, towns still expelled Jews to the cities, in order to boast that they were Jew-free. In German-occupied western Europe it was still possible for individual Jews to emigrate, if they had, for example, American citizenship (the USA was not yet at war with Germany), or were married to subjects of causal essay other neutral states.
In German-occupied Poland, more than two million Jews were still confined to write progress paper, ghettos, many of them forced to work in factories manufacturing clothing for the German Army. Essays And Reviews. In former Czechoslovakia, a so-called 'model' ghetto was established, on 10 October 1941, in progress report research the l8th-century fortress at Theresienstadt. And Reviews Victorian. Jews were deported there from Prague, Brno, and several hundred other towns and villages in Bohemia and write progress paper Moravia. In German-occupied USSR, the killings in fields and ditches also continued, with each day's murder total being recorded by the killing squads and help paper reported to Berlin. On 24 October 1941, for example, 4,000 Jews were taken from Wilno to Ponar and murdered there during the following three days; according to the precise statistics submitted by the killing squad as a matter of routine to Berlin, the write report murdered Jews included 885 children. The daily slaughter in the east was often watched by curious bystanders, off-duty soldiers, and German businessmen working in the region. The brutal nature of the killings led to a number of protests being sent to Berlin. One protest, dated 27 October, was forwarded to Berlin by Wilhelm Kube, the commissioner-general of Belorussia (whose headquarters were in essays in trespassing Minsk) with the paper comment 'To have buried alive seriously wounded people, who then worked their way out of their graves again, is such extreme beastliness that this incident must be reported to the Fhrer.' Even as these protests reached Berlin, a fifth solution was under discussion there. This was intended to be the 'final' solution, the aim of which was the business report essay murder of all Jews living in Europe.
It would be 'final' in that once it had been carried out, there would be no more Jews alive in Europe, and therefore no need for any further solution. Since the German annexation of report Austria in genetics and crime March 1938, the bureaucratic aspects of the emigration of Jews had been entrusted to a small government department in Berlin, the progress report paper 'Central Office for Jewish Emigration', headed by an SS officer, Adolf Eichmann. In the autumn of 1941, Eichmann was put in charge of a new department, the 'Race and Resettlement Office', a section of the RSHAs Amt IV, and was entrusted with the task of preparing the mechanics of the final solution. In an victorian official letter to the German foreign office about an emigration application from a Jewish woman who wished to move from Germany to the unoccupied zone of France, he explained (on 28 October 1941) that the write progress report application had to be turned down 'in view of the approaching final solution of the and reviews European Jewry problem'. Henceforth, this phrase 'final solution' was to write progress report research, appear in many official documents.
The 'solution' itself was as follows: Jews living throughout Europe, whether confined in the Polish ghettos or still living in essay their own homes in western Europe, were to be rounded up (wherever possible this was to be done by French, Dutch, Belgian, or other local police), detained locally in special holding camps, and then deported by train to distant camps in which they would be murdered by gas. No killing would take place in or near the cities in which the victims lived; instead, it would take place hundreds, and for some thousands, of kilometres away. During the autumn of 1941 experiments were made on Soviet prisoners-of-war, and also on Jews, to find out the research most expeditious method of murder by gas; the one in which the victims would have the least warning, if any, and in which the least number of operatives would be needed. Unlike the Einsatzgruppen murders in the east, there were to be no bystanders. Central to this plan were the elements of secrecy and deception. Report. 'Deportation' was to be called 'resettlement'. The area in which this 'resettlement' was to take place was to be called 'somewhere in the East'. The trains taking the deportees were to be called 'Special Resettlement Trains'. The nature of the camps was to be kept secret, even from write research, those who had to drive the trains to within a few kilometres of them.
Two methods of winning mba essays mass murder were devised. The first was by means of gas vans in which the deportees would be taken as if on a journey to a labour camp, but would in fact be killed by exhaust fumes during the short drive from the station to the camp itself. The second was by means of report research paper specially-designed gas chambers, into which they would be taken as if for a shower, and inside which, once the doors were locked, they would be killed by gas (see ZYKLON-B). The process of gassing was to be totally disguised; many of the gas chambers were to have signs on them such as 'shower room' or 'washing room'. The camp sites chosen for the reception and murder of the deported Jews were in remote areas, four in German-occupied Poland and one in occupied USSR. The first to be operational was in hirschman in trespassing a wood near Chelmno, a small village in western Poland. The first deportees were sent there and killed in gas vans, on 8 December 1941. Write. On that day 2,300 Jews were murdered at winning, Chelmno. Write Research. In the coming months, at least a thousand were killed each day, most of them brought by train from the Ldz Ghetto and the towns around Ldz, until as many as 400,000 had been killed. On 20 January 1942, six weeks after the start of the daily deportations and gassings at Chelmno, a group of senior German civil servants gathered at a villa near Berlin, in the suburb of Wannsee, to essays and reviews, co-ordinate the activities of the various government departments, including the state railways, the foreign office and the 'Race and Resettlement Office', all of whose active cooperation was needed to carry out the deportation of Jews from throughout Europe. Statistics were prepared for the Wannsee conference by Eichmann, giving the number of Jews whom it was hoped would be rounded up and deported.
These figures included Jews in write report research paper the neutral countries of Europe, including Eire (where the figure given was 4,000), Switzerland (18,000), and Spain (6,000). Also included on the Wannsee list were the Jews of Britain, estimated by Eichmann at genetics and crime essay, 330,000. All were to be brought into the net of deportation and destruction. Three more death camps, part of operation REINHARD were also set up in German-occupied Poland, to which Jews were deported and report paper murdered. One camp was at Sobibor, where 300,000 Jews from central Poland were murdered, and genetics essay several thousand Jews from Germany and the Netherlands. Another camp was at *Belzec, where, beginning in March 1942, 600,000 Jews from write progress, western and eastern Galicia, including Cracow and Lww, were murdered, as well as 1,500 Poles, killed for trying to help Jews. The third camp was at Treblinka, where at least 700,000 Polish Jews were murdered, including half a million from the Warsaw Ghetto, from which the first deportations took place on 22 July 1942. Writing Mba Essays. Also murdered at Treblinka were almost all the Jews of several other large Polish cities, including Piotrkow (22,000). During the course of fifteen months, two million Jews were murdered at these four death camps.
A further million had been murdered by the Einsatzgruppen in the east. As a result of this systematic killing, the Jewish populations of write research Poland, the Baltic States, and the USSR as far east as the Caucasus, had been almost entirely destroyed by the beginning of 1943. The few Jews still alive in those regions worked in forced-labour camps, at specific tasks needed by the German Army. The Final Solution, so effective in the east, was also intended to analysis argument, include all the Jews of western Europe. Round-ups took place every week, deportations either weekly (from France and the Netherlands), or monthly (from Belgium). All those who were rounded up were deported by train to the east.
Some were deported to the existing death camps, others were sent to Kovno and Riga, where they were murdered at the sites of the earlier mass murder of the local Jews. At Riga, gas vans were used. Among the Jews deported to Treblinka and murdered were 8,000 from Theresienstadt and 12,000 from 23 Balkan Jewish communities in distant Macedonia and Thrace; they traced their origins to the expulsion of the report Jews from Spain in 1492. All 12,000 were deported across Europe in twenty trains, and murdered on reaching Treblinka. Other Jews, possibly as many as 250,000, and including 22,000 from Theresienstadt, were deported from western Europe to Maly Trostenets, a small village outside the Belorussian city of Minsk, where they were killed in gas vans similar to those used at Chelmno and Riga. Many of the Jews of Yugoslavia were murdered in camps (including Stara Gradiska, Loborgrad, and Jasenovac), set up in the independent state of Croatia, an ally of Germany; 15,000 Serbian Jews were killed by gas vans at Zemun, a German-run camp near Belgrade. At Maly Trostenets, and in the four death camps set up by the Germans in eastern Poland, almost every deportee was murdered on reaching the camp: the young, the old, and the able-bodied. A tiny number of deportees, only a few hundred out of the hundreds of thousands deported, were formed into Sonderkommandos, or special detachments. They were kept in a special section of each camp, under heavy guard, and forced to take the bodies of those killed to pits where they were buried or burned; or to sort out the clothes of those who had been murdered for shipment back to Germany. These slave-labourers were then murdered in hirschman essays their turn. In March 1942 yet another death camp was set up, located near the village of Birkenau, close to Auschwitz, in the industrial region of east Upper Silesia.
For Jews who were sent to this camp, there was a change in the method of the final solution. The region, rich in coal, was part of German-annexed Poland. Several hundred German factories had been relocated here; they, and the existing coal mines, required slave labour on a substantial scale. Many non-Jews formed a part of this labour force, including several thousand British prisoners-of-war. Progress Report. But the need for even more manpower had become urgent, as Germany approached its third year at war, and had still failed either to conquer the business USSR or to invade the UK. To provide a further reservoir of slave labour, Jews were brought to Birkenau from all over Europe. Unlike the murder system already in operation at the existing death camps, not every deportee to write progress report, Birkenau was murdered.
While all children, all old people, and the sick, were taken from the causal essay deportation trains and sent straight to the gas chambers, several hundred able-bodied men and women from each deportation train (sometimes as many as 500 in a train with a thousand deportees) were separated from those about to write paper, be killed, and had a serial number tattooed on their forearm; at least in the short term their lives were spared; they were sent to barracks from which they would go each day to genetics and crime essay, their slave labour tasks. The camp at Birkenau consisted of a large area of write wooden huts and brick barracks, and two (later four) gas chambers, attached to causal analysis argument essay, which were crematoria in which the bodies of those murdered were burned almost at write progress report, once. Birkenau lay within the administrative area of a nearby existing concentration camp, Auschwitz, at which, since the writing analysis paper summer of 1940, Polish political prisoners had faced the progress report paper worst rigours of and reviews punishment, including torture and execution. Some Polish Jews had already been among the report paper victims at Auschwitz. But Birkenau was established for Jews alone, and with a view to albert hirschman, continuing the Final Solution, already so effective elsewhere, by the murder of at least half of those who arrived in each deportation train.
The gassings of Jews at Birkenau began in May 1942 and continued until November 1944. The trains to Auschwitz-Birkenau came from every region under German rule or influence. Usually there were a thousand deportees in each train. The trains travelled great distances across Europe; those locked inside them had no idea of write report their destination, or of their fate. The first trains came from Slovakia (26 March 1942) and causal argument from France (27 March 1942). In both instances, local police, Slovak and French, carried out the task of rounding up Jews, assembling them, and report research paper putting them on the trains. The French Jews in that particular deportation were all born outside France, most of them Polish Jews who had emigrated to France between the wars. During two and a half years, without respite or interruption, trains brought Jews to essays in trespassing, Auschwitz-Birkenau from as far north as Norway, as far west as the Atlantic coast of France, as far south as Rome, Corfu, and Athens, as far east as Transylvania and Ruthenia. Write Progress Report. Among the essays large Jewish communities murdered almost in their entirety at Birkenau were those of the Greek city of Salonika (more than 40,000 murdered), the Polish city of Bialystok (more than 10,000), the Greek island of Corfu (1,800), and the Aegean island of Rhodes (1,700). More than 44,000 Jews from Theresienstadt were also deported to write report paper, Birkenau and killed; as were several thousand Jews who had earlier been incarcerated in the German prewar concentration camps of Sachsenhausen and Buchenwald. More than two and a half million Jews were deported to Birkenau, and at least two and a quarter million murdered there.
In addition to those taken straight from the trains to the gas chambers, at least three-quarters of the slave labourers were among the victims, toiled to death, killed by sadistic guards, or sent to the gas chambers when they fell sick. The aim of the Final Solution was to murder all the Jews of Europe. In this it failed, despite the terrifyingly high death toll. Albert In Trespassing. In June 1944 the Anglo-American forces landed in write progress Normandy (see OVERLORD), and the Red Army was on analysis, the border of eastern Galicia. Particularly from western Europe, the deportations had not been completed. Progress Report Research. From France, 83,000 Jews had been deported and essays and reviews victorian murdered, but 200,000 were still alive, many of them sheltered from deportation by their fellow French citizens.
From Italy, 8,000 Jews had been deported to their deaths, but 35,000 were still in Italy at write, the end of the a literary war, and thus survived. From Belgium, over 24,000 Jews were taken to their deaths, but 40,000 remained and survived. Elsewhere, the ratio of survivors to those murdered was much worse. Write Report. Only 20,000 Dutch Jews remained undeported; 106,000 were deported and killed. Causal. Of Yugoslavia's Jews, 60,000 were killed, and only 12,000 survived. From Greece, 65,000 were taken to their deaths, and only 12,000 survived. Details of the killings of Jews reached the West only in fragments (see KARSKI and NOWAK).
Most of the information that did percolate through arrived many months, and in several cases more than a year after the events had taken place. Publicity was given to the details as they emerged, but publicity could not halt the killings, which were taking place deep in the heartland of German-occupied Europe, far beyond the range of Allied bombers, and almost three years before the Allied armies were able to write progress research paper, advance into central Europe. The details that were known were often fragmentary, and sometimes out of date. A telegram from essays and reviews, Geneva in August 1942 warned that the Germans were in the process of drawing up plans to exterminate the Jews by gas (see SCHULTE). In fact, those plans had already been in operation for eight months. In the progress research autumn of 1942 news of the deportations from France was widely publicized in the British newspapers, and universally denounced. But the destination of the deportees was unknown, referred to as 'somewhere in the East'. It was in fact Auschwitz, but this was kept secret by the Germans, who used every type of deception to hide the true destinations and writing fate of the deportees. Details of the killing of Jews at Auschwitz II (Birkenau) did not reach Geneva, London, and paper New York until the summer of 1944, a full two years after the mba essays killings had begun. International protest against the deportation and killing of Hungarian Jews was then effective, but only because the tide of war had turned, and Allied aircraft could at last reach Budapest. Progress. The Hungarian government, fearing immediate Allied reprisals, forced the German authorities to halt the and crime essay deportations in July 1944, after massive protests (see below).
Even today, details about camps and killing centres are emerging, which were unknown, not only at the time, but for many years afterwards. There were several examples of decisive action on the part of governments that refused to deport Jews. Progress Paper. All 50,000 Bulgarian Jews survived the in trespassing war because King Boris and progress the Bulgarian parliament refused the German request to writing winning mba essays, send them to the camps in Poland. In Denmark, with the encouragement of King Frederik IX (1899-1972) almost all 5,500 Jews were taken during a single night by small boats across the narrow water to write progress research paper, neutral Sweden, and safety. After the first fifteen deportees from Finland had been murdered, the Finnish government rejected all German pressure to deport the remaining 2,000 Jews, many of whom were refugees from report essay, Germany and Central Europe. Mussolini's Italy likewise refused repeated German pressure to deport Jews, as did the Regent of Hungary, Admiral Horthy. It was only after German forces occupied northern Italy (September 1943) and Hungary (March 1944) that the deportation of progress report research paper Jews began. After 400,000 Jews had been deported to their deaths from writing mba essays, Hungary to Auschwitz-Birkenau, within the space of three months, Horthy, under pressure from Pope Pius XII, from King Gustav V of Sweden (1858-1950), and write report research from the western Allies, demanded a halt to any further deportations. More than 300,000 Hungarian Jews were thereby saved; though several thousand were subsequently murdered by Hungarian Fascist gangs such as the Arrow Cross (see HUNGARY, 3), others were saved from the gangs by the intervention of several foreign diplomats in genetics and crime Budapest, including the senior Swedish representative in the city, Raoul Wallenberg. Like each of the captive peoples of Europe, the Jews were subjected to all the progress paper rigours of occupation, as well as the total isolation imposed on the ghettos. Nevertheless, their resistance to deportation was widespread.
Best known is the Warsaw rising of April 1943. Despite the desperate hunger in winning the ghetto, the willpower and determination of the Jewish insurgents was such that the Germans had to use considerable military force to crush the uprising. More than a hundred other Jewish uprisings are known in towns and write paper villages throughout eastern Europe. There were also acts of defiance in every death camp. At Auschwitz-Birkenau two of the crematoria were blown up by Jewish slave labourers in October 1944; all those who took part in the revolt were hunted down and killed. Slave labourers also defied their captors at Treblinka and help analysis paper Sobibor, where there were breakouts, and some of the escapers survived. Progress. Other Jews managed to genetics and crime essay, escape from the ghettos into the forests, and to join, and even to form, partisan units, harassing German lines of communication, and trying to write report paper, protect small groups of women and children who had also escaped. But German military might was deployed against these partisans, and few survived more than a single summer in hiding.
Beginning in September 1944, with the approach of the Soviet Army, large numbers of analysis essay Jewish slave labourers were evacuated from Auschwitz-Birkenau and the surrounding industrial zone. Many were driven westward on foot, or in railway trucks without adequate food or shelter. Write Progress Report Research. As many as 100,000 Jews died or were shot down by their guards during these evacuations, which continued through the winter. The marchers were sent to central Germany, to build and to work in vast underground factories, and at other slave labour projects intended to help halt the advance of the western Allies, who by January 1945 had reached the Rhine. Many of those on writing, the death marches were toiled and beaten to report research paper, death in these factories and the camps attached to them (one of the most notorious was Mittelbau-Dora). Albert Essays. Others were sent to pre-war concentration camps, hitherto used in the main for political prisoners and criminals. In these camps they were the object of write report research paper sadistic cruelty and neglect. When the Anglo-American forces reached these camps in April 1945, they were shocked at report essay, the number of dead and research dying, the starvation and the sickness, which they found.
It was the liberation of these camps (among them Bergen-Belsen, Dachau, Buchenwald, and Mauthausen), that for the first time brought photographic evidence to the west. These were not images of the death camps, none of genetics and crime essay which were then in existence, but they were nevertheless horrific. An estimated 300,000 European Jews survived the camps and progress research death marches. Essay. Six million Jews, one-third of the world's Jewish population in 1939, were murdered. Write Paper. Most of the survivors left Europe for the USA, South America, Canada, Australia, the essays victorian UK, and Palestine. There they sought to rebuild their lives, learn new languages, start new families, and live with the continuing torment of the memory of mass murder, and the destruction of their own loved ones and communities.
In many countries, museums and memorials have been set up to remember the victims of the Final Solution, which is known in Yiddish as the write research Destruction ( Churban ), in Hebrew as the Catastrophe ( Shoah ), and, more generally, as the Holocaust. Special ceremonies are now held by and crime, Jews throughout the world on Holocaust Memorial Day. The anniversaries of Kristallnacht, and of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, are also widely commemorated. In the immediate aftermath of the war, several dozen camp commandants and report functionaries were executed, some on business report essay, the spot, others after trials. Further trials continued, mostly in the Federal German Republic, into the 1990s. In 1988, legislation was passed in Canada and Australia to bring to trial perpetrators of mass murder; in 1991 the write progress report paper British parliament approved similar legislation. The issue of reparations was largely resolved within a decade of the end of the war. On 10 September 1952, in Luxemburg City Hall, Israel and West Germany (both of them states which had been created after the war) signed the Luxemburg Treaty, under which the West German government agreed to pay substantial sums of money both to Israel and to Jewish organizations, as reparation for 'material damage' suffered by the Jews at the hands of the Nazis. Communist East Germany refused to participate in this agreement, but in essays 1990 the paper newly-established non-communist government of East Germany (subsequently merged with that of West Germany) agreed in principle to the payment of albert essays in trespassing reparations to surviving Jewish victims of Nazi persecution.
Several thousand Jews were saved from deportation and write progress report research paper death by non-Jews who, at the risk of their own lives, hid and and reviews helped them. On 19 August 1953 the Israeli parliament passed a law making it the duty of the State of Israel to progress report paper, recognize the essays in trespassing work done by non-Jews in saving Jewish lives during the war. An expression of honour, 'Righteous among the Nations', was awarded, in the name of the Jewish people, to every non-Jewish person or family who had risked their lives to write report, save Jews. Evidence of such action has to causal analysis, come initially from one of those who were actually saved. At Yad Vashem, the national Holocaust memorial and progress report research archive in help writing paper Jerusalem, an 'Avenue of the Righteous' was begun in progress research 1962, where each non-Jew who is honoured plants a tree, or has a tree planted in his or her name. By 1990, more than 2,000, among them Oskar Schindler, had been thus honoured. A substantial literature about the Final Solution exists, much of it published in the 1980s and in large part the albert testimony of survivors.
Several ghetto diaries and chronicles have been found and published, including the write progress research paper mass of material assembled in the Warsaw Ghetto by the historian Emanuel Ringelblum and help analysis his circle, all of whom perished during the war. Further volumes of the recollections of survivors are published every few days; each one adds something to our existing knowledge of the fate of an progress estimated ten thousand Jewish communities throughout Europe, whose lives, and also whose life and culture, was destroyed between 1939 and 1945.