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a short essay Short Essay Samples. Brought to you by EssayEdge.com -- The world's premier Application Essay editing service -- The New York Times Learning Network. Please select from the following short essay sets: Note: The below essays were not edited by EssayEdge Editors. They appear as they were initially reviewed by admissions officers. SAMPLE SHORT ESSAY SET 1: Georgetown, Saudi International Relations. For many years, I have been interested in studying international relations. My interest in pursuing this field stems from several factors which have affected me. Chapter? First, I have been exposed to thesis international affairs throughout my life. With my father and two of my brothers in the Saudi Foreign Service, I have grown up under the shadow of inter-national affairs. Second, I am fascinated by history, economics, and diplomacy.
I believe, through the study of international relations, I can effectively satisfy my curiosity in these fields. A third factor which has affected my interest in international relations is patriotism. Through the Foreign Service, I would not only have the opportunity to serve my country, but also have the chance to help bridge gaps between my country and others. Finally, as a Saudi living abroad, I have been bridging cultures throughout my life. This experience has taught me to look for differences to compromise and similarities to synthesize in order to balance different cultures. In short, I believe that my experiences in life, combined with a rigorous academic education, will enable me to pursue a successful career in the Saudi Foreign Service. Georgetown, Favorite Class. At St. Albans, especially in our later years, we are given the freedom to choose from a vast array of chapter classes. Using this freedom, I have selected classes which have personal significance to me, regardless of thesis prices difficulty or appearance on my transcript. However, from these classes, one holds an chapter extraordinary amount of essay writing rubric value to chapter me.
This course is A.P. Essay? Omnibus History, a combination of dissertation outlines American and European history. There are several reasons for my great interest in this class. First, I am fascinated by the cyclical nature of the past. Essay On Vince Lombardi? I see these recurring political, economic, and social trends as a means of looking forward into the future, while allowing us to dissertation avoid the mistakes of the past. Second, history teaches many lessons about the nature of human behavior, both past and essay lombardi, present, providing insight into the actions, desires, and aspirations of those around me. Finally, it lays a solid foundation for several disciplines, including political science, economics, and international relations, three fields of dissertation outlines great interest to me. Georgetown, Visual Arts. Another major interest of mine, which I have not had the opportunity to express elsewhere on my application, is the visual arts.
Throughout high school, I have used a variety of media to express myself. I began with black and white photography, focusing on the presence of lines and balance in nature. For my work in this medium, I received an award at the St. Albans School Art Show. From photography, I moved on to glass etching. Do Violent Video To Youth Essay? Using a sandblaster to etch the glass, I again concentrated on lines and balance in my works.
Moreover, by arranging several glass panes into a sculpture, I moved my study into three dimensions, winning another Art Show award. Dissertation Outlines? Currently, I am working on canvas, using oil and acrylic in a Mondrian style, which is based on lines and censorship, balance. Eventually, I hope to explore the effects of combining these and other media, creating my own style of artistic expression. In the past four years of my life, no activity has affected me more than wrestling. Four years of dissertation chapter outlines varsity wrestling and the honor of prices being a team captain has instilled many qualities in me. First, through years of hard work and continuous dieting, wrestling has given me discipline. This discipline has spread to other parts of my personality, including my moral character, work ethic, and perserverence. Another quality wrestling has given me is leadership. As a team captain, I have learned to dissertation chapter outlines lead by example, both on and off the mat. Above all, though, wrestling has given me a love of life. Through this sport, I have experienced pain, sacrifice, adversity, and success.
Exposure to rubric these feelings-which are, in my opinion, the essence of being-has allowed me to truly appreciate life. I hope to continue wrestling at Georgetown. What immediately strikes the reader about this set-before even reading it-is the balance between the essays. Each answer contains only dissertation chapter, one paragraph, each of approximately equal length. The solid structure of essays on tv each essay and chapter outlines, the focus of each reflects this outward balance. Each one focuses on a completely different area of school its writer’s life, another striking detail. The first focuses on his career goals, the second on his interest in history, the third on his interest in chapter outlines the visual arts, and the fourth on censorship wrestling.
This is a perfect example of the jigsaw puzzle approach. When put together, you have a well-rounded individual with passion, depth, and involvement in many different areas. SAMPLE SHORT ESSAY SET 2: Throughout my life, I have tried to be a well-balanced person. Growing up in the South, I had a hard time fighting the stereotypical image of a Chinese person. Dissertation Chapter? I was expected to be a math and science genius and nothing more. Essay Writing Rubric? As it turned out, I defied my detractors by dissertation outlines excelling in English and history along with math and science.
And over the years, I have continued to maintain my academic standards. Nevertheless, I have also made sure that I am more than an essay academic person. Dissertation Outlines? I am an high essay active one as well. In middle school, the most popular game during lunch was a basketball game called Salt and Pepper (white vs. black). The first day of school, I stepped onto the basketball courts and was greeted by cries of consternation, “Who is he? Is he salt or pepper?” But after the game, I had made a name for myself. From then onward, I would be known as Spice, and the game we played became Salt, Pepper, and Spice.
When I moved to dissertation California, things were no different. I continued to play an active part both academically and socially. My involvement with Cross-country, Speech and Debate, Ultimate Frisbee and numerous clubs guaranteed that I would not be only essay lombardi, known as an Honors student. Like myself, Duke is much more than an academic institution; it is a living institution. I feel that I will be given the opportunity to excel both academically and socially. Duke is a university known for its rich history and strong academic program.
And, at the same time, it is also known for its innovation and progressiveness. These are qualities which draw me to the college. In addition, Duke and I have a lot in common. The two most important extracurricular activities I have are a major part of Duke University. Duke’s Speech team is chapter known for its strong Extemp squad. I remember the time when my speech coach asked me what schools I was applying to. When I had listed my top five choices, he frowned at me and essays, said, “Out of all those schools, I will only respect you if you either join us at Berkeley or go to Duke and extemp.” I hope I will be given the opportunity to contribute my part in the Duke Speech team. Equally important, the dissertation chapter, Duke University has a well-known Ultimate Frisbee team. High Essay? I look forward expectantly to becoming a part of the team. Dissertation Chapter Outlines? Strange as it seems, Ultimate Frisbee is one of my top criteria for choosing my future college. Enemy Topics? It delights me that Duke places such great emphasis on the two extracurricular activities that mean most to dissertation chapter me.
My first year at Duke should be a great one. Majoring in economics at Duke should allow me to essays on tv censorship both pursue my major studies and dissertation, allow me time for personal interests in Chinese and the Humanities. Moreover, in my spare time, I plan to join the Speech team and the Ultimate Frisbee team. Hopefully, with my previous experience, I will have an early start in both Speech and Ultimate. Yet, I will never forget why I’m in essay on vince college in the first place. As long as I give organic chemistry a wide berth, I should be able to continue my level of chapter outlines academic excellence. Overall, my first year at Duke promises to be exciting, if a bit hectic. I find Hermann Hesse’s book, Narcissus and Goldmund, intellectually exciting. Learning Essay? After reading the book last year, I remember putting it down and sighing contentedly. I had, after a sleepless night, finally finished.
What I reveled in was not the fact that I could sleep, but that I had come away with an inexplicable something. It was not an understanding which could be pinpointed and explained. Rather, it was a sense I felt in outlines the depths of my soul. Essay Rubric? And yet, what delighted me more was that I knew that I had only begun to dissertation understand the on tv censorship, book; that there remained countless messages which I could only sense but not grasp. Dissertation Chapter? Here, finally, I had a book which could be re-read. And every time I finished, I would come away with a new understanding of something I could not put into of the people words. Unlike the normal academic, I do not want to find the dissertation outlines, final answer for everything. Throughout my life, I have always felt a sense of loss after succeeding in a long search. For me, it is not the ends I seek, but the means themselves. I am perfectly content to enemy of the topics never find the final answer as long as I will always be able to find a better one.
Duke, Chinese Culture/Economics. Dissertation Outlines? Born in online learning papers Taiwan, I came to the United States when I was five. Armed with only two words (“hello” and “popcorn”), I braved the uncertainties of a complex, new environment. Twelve years later, my vocabulary is considerably larger and I have adapted well to chapter outlines my surroundings. At the online, same time, I have neither forgotten my native culture nor its language. My ties with my native Chinese culture remain as strong as ever. I visit my relatives in Taiwan regularly almost every summer and have traveled throughout China. And to outlines everyone’s continuing surprise, I have yet to high rubric forget how to chapter speak Mandarin.
Nevertheless, twelve years in America has made its impressions upon me as well. Essay Papers? I am as “American” as anyone my age. The songs I listen to, the sports I play, and the way I speak are all a reflection of that. Dissertation Outlines? In short, I am a combination of both East and West. Nevertheless, I sometimes wonder whether speaking Chinese at thesis prices home and visits in the summer are enough to maintain my ties with my native culture. Often, when I see my parents reading old Chinese literature or poetry, I feel that I am only in touch with half of what I am. This sense of loss has led me to seek out my old roots. I turn to the East to rediscover what I have lost.
Yet, I cannot resign myself to merely studying my own culture and dissertation, language. I want to be able to apply my knowledge as well. To me, pursuing a career in business is a very pragmatic solution to my future welfare. My father is a businessman in Taiwan and I have had numerous opportunities to watch him work. Through him, I have discovered my own interests in the business field. I find the way business operates in the East to be very exciting. At the same time, my father has soothed my sense of morality by showing me that it is possible to be an do violent honest businessman in Asia. Before I learned about Duke, I had made up my mind to study economics and to dissertation chapter outlines ultimately pursue a career in international business. On Tv Censorship? I had come to see this path as the chapter, best combination for on vince lombardi, fulfilling both my aspirations towards knowledge and my pragmatic goals of a future livelihood.
China, my planned area of dissertation chapter focus, is an expanding market with a dearth of skilled business professionals. But I had misgivings because I wanted a school with a strong focus on the humanities as well. Thus, I find Duke University exciting and perfect for me. It gives me a strong economics curriculum, but still allows me to pursue my interests in the humanities. With economics at Duke University, I will have access to essays a wide array of studies both within and beyond my chosen major. I will have an edge in the business world by virtue of Duke. Chapter Outlines? After attending Duke (if I am accepted, of on vince lombardi course), I will have a clear path before me. My studies at Duke should virtually guarantee me for any graduate business school. And, after my graduate studies, I will be able to realize my dreams. Perhaps, I will be able to serve as a bridge between East and dissertation, West.
These three well-written essays create a strong set. On Vince? The first and the last would have been impressive on their own. Reading them all together magnifies their impact considerably. This student does an especially good job of targeting the school. This student focuses his first essay on his extracurriculars and relates them to why Duke would be perfect for him. Chapter? He focuses the third on his Chinese background and how it relates to his career goals and online learning essay papers, academic interests. Then he also relates these interests to why Duke matches him perfectly. His favorite book provided the focus of the second essay. What makes this second essay better than others like it is that the applicant manages to put himself into dissertation the question. He does not just talk about the centre prices, book, he uses it to talk about himself and stress the inquisitive nature of his personality-always a plus.
SAMPLE SHORT ESSAY SET 3: Participating in my high school’s debate program has been my most meaningful activity these past four years. I have learned how to dissertation chapter speak in front of a crowd without becoming nervous, how to think on my feet, and enemy of the people essay topics, how to argue the merits of any side of an issue. Being on the debate team also allows me to educate myself on current topics of global importance such as the homeless problem, health care, and chapter, pollution. Throughout the censorship, three years I have dedicated to the activity, (high school) has always maintained a successful squad and I am quite proud to know that I have earned many of the trophies and chapter outlines, awards that have helped make the program so successful and (high school) well known on the debate circuit. Because of the essays on tv, activity, I have learned that from education to communication, from argument to enlightenment, debate is necessary for two or more humans to transcend mere exchange of thought and achieve synergy instead. I now view success in dissertation debate as far more than a trophy; I now see it as evidence that I can successfully communicate my beliefs to others and have them logically accept them as their own, thus priming me for any future challenges involving human interaction. Dartmouth, Honors and enemy people essay, Awards. My most important honors since tenth grade have been winning the dissertation outlines, Brown University Book Award for my skills in English, being named as a National Merit Semifinalist (Finalist status pending), winning the essay, Journalism Education Association National Write-off Award of dissertation chapter outlines Excellence in the Editorial division at on tv censorship a national conference, being selected as a Semifinalist in the NCTE Writing Contest for outlines, my work in prose, being named as an Illinois State Scholar for my academic achievement in high school and my high A.C.T. scores, being selected to the Spanish Honor Society for my consistent success with the language in the classroom, being selected as the Student of the Month in the Foreign Language/Social Sciences division two years in a row for my success in those classes, and in a culminating event, being featured in Who’s Who Among American High School Students for my overall scholastic success.
Dartmouth, Summer at Dartmouth. Most of my past summer was spent away from home. Learning? In that brief month in which I remained in (town name) I worked at (job) in order to earn the outlines, money I was going to spend on my trips. My first excursion was to the east coast where I visited several schools and enemy of the people essay topics, took in the atmosphere of an area to which my midwestern self was somewhat unaccustomed. One school I was considering that I did not visit was Dartmouth. Dissertation Outlines? After all, I spent a month there later in the summer. Essay Writing? As a participant of the Dartmouth Debate Institute I spent a lot of time in Feldberg, Dana, and Baker libraries; resided in dissertation chapter outlines the well-known Choates; attended sessions in Silsby; and dined in the Full-Fare section of Thayer.
There was also time for recreational activities such as rope swinging, volleyball, frisbee, sleep (every little bit was cherished), and beautiful hikes up to Dana. I did manage to violence essay sit down and work in such a clean, open environment, however. The instructors made sure of that. The four-week institute honed my skills in speaking, researching, structuring arguments, and thinking. As a result, my partner and I were able to break into outlines the elimination rounds at the institute-ending tournament which included the essay, top debaters in the nation. Aside from the debate skills I learned, I found the institute very favorable because of the exchange of ideas taking place between the dissertation chapter outlines, students and staff. What I learned from those exchanges enlightened me not only as a debater but also as a person. Although I enjoy all of enemy of the essay topics my subjects, I regard classes I have taken in dissertation chapter the social sciences to be the most meaningful. Whereas some classes use formulas to describe natural occurrences, the social sciences show that not everything is explicable in such a clear-cut manner.
The social sciences describe people; they describe the people who make up the formulas and how and why that was done. High Essay? The social sciences also explain the past so as a society, people can avoid past catastrophes and outlines, build upon past successes. Not only essay lombardi, do they describe how we act as we do, but why we act as we do. I am not a student who always likes to follow someone else’s rules. While most subjects allow for free thought, the social sciences encourage innovative thinking. Those classes expect students to explain why something happened based on certain conditions. I didn’t learn that the dissertation outlines, Iron Curtain was an high writing rubric economic measure in any math class. As a student my ultimate goal is to understand things. I feel the best way to understand is not by reciting another’s thought, but by formulating my own and debating it with people who disagree with me.
I believe that exchange of thought is vital in every curriculum, but the social sciences do the most to promote that exchange. I highly doubt that anyone will be debating Einstein’s ideas in the near future-and be right. This essayist dedicates the first essay to his involvement in outlines debating. He manages to communicate quite a lot in a short amount of space (what he has learned, what he has achieved, and what debating means to him) without ever losing his focus. The second essay is an prices example of an answer to a list question (“List your honors and awards”).
The third gets more personal by dissertation describing the summer he spent at Dartmouth. The strength of this essay is that he sells himself on his knowledge and essays, familiarity of the school. Dissertation Chapter Outlines? The weakness of this essay is that he tries to do too much and loses his focus after the second paragraph. The conclusion does not seem to fit with the points he has made in the essay-the last line particularly seems to come from nowhere. SAMPLE SHORT ESSAY SET 4: Harvard, Favorite Books. The novel Black Like Me was the essays censorship, most stimulating book I have recently read.
I was taken aback by the cruelty the narrator experienced when he was black compared to the hospitality he found as a white man. Possessing the same occupation, clothing, wealth, speech, and identity did not matter when his skin was another color. Given that this was a non-fictional piece, my reaction was even stronger. Dissertation Outlines? The book made me favor equality of opportunity for all in every endeavor so others’ opinions of them are based on performance, not preconceptions. Harvard, Favorite Teacher. I selected Mr. Do Violent Games Contribute To Youth? (name) because he taught me more than U.S. History; he taught me how to think independently. This wasn’t done only to prepare me for dissertation chapter outlines, the free-response section of the do violent to youth, A.P. test, either. I know he did it to make his students responsible citizens and responsible adults.
From the outset, he wanted to make sure that we knew how we stood in our political philosophy: strict constructionists or loose constructionists. He wanted to dissertation outlines make sure that we didn’t gravitate towards empty categories like liberal or conservative, but rather focused on issues separately whenever we needed to take a stand on them. Imagine my surprise when I, the son of two very conservative parents who constantly bombarded me with their rhetoric, discovered that I had strong liberal tendencies on some issues. Aside from political affiliations, Mr. (name) taught us how to make sense out of history by trying to lombardi understand the personal motives that went in to any chain of historical occurrences. Dissertation? In his class, I came to the realization that history isn’t only thesis centre prices, a series of names and dates printed in dissertation chapter outlines a textbook, but a more complex subject that requires deep thought and analysis for full comprehension. Because of Mr. (name), history is now my favorite subject. Lombardi? He has also been a motivating force outside of the classroom.
He always had faith in my ability and constantly encouraged me to chapter outlines do my best. I believe he respected my abilities and wanted to see them developed further. In fact, had it not been for his faith in me, I would have never applied to Harvard, the school I plan to attend in the fall. Harvard, Unnoticed Accomplishment. It’s not that I’m a weak guy, just that I had been somewhat self-conscious about my strength early on in my high school career. Do Violent Video Games Contribute To Youth Essay? My gym class didn’t help too much, either. Thanks to a demeaning test of strength appropriately dubbed the dissertation outlines, “Grip Test,” once each quarter I was provided the on vince lombardi, opportunity to chapter outlines squeeze a gadget, get a score, and on tv, have my teacher announce it out loud, no matter how high or (as in my case) how low it was. No matter how hard I tried, the dissertation outlines, cruel and callous scale never registered above 40.
Almost every other male in the class could boast of a high-40’s or mid-50’s score. I hated that test with a passion. Until recently. When this semester rolled around and essay lombardi, I had the gripper placed in dissertation chapter my palm, I was prepared for the same old same old. I had been improving slightly from quarter to quarter, but nothing impressive ever happened. I drew in a deep breath, squeezed, looked at the scale, and almost fainted. Sixty-six! In a way only a teenager can appreciate, for an accomplishment only a teenager would find meaningful, I thought I was in heaven. My success was even sweeter as I watched jocks pale in thesis centre prices comparison when they took the test.
Sure, to some people my academic accomplishments seem fairly impressive, and I would agree. Yet the grip test situation was much more personal and represented success in an area I normally don’t pay attention to. Plus I learned two things. One: I can pride myself on the smallest triviality. Two: I’m glad we don’t measure strength in our gym classes with the bench press.
Harvard, Leadership through Dedication. To me, leadership does not necessarily mean accumulating as many titles as possible in school activities; I feel one leads through his dedication, actions, and contributions. I have always tried to lead in almost everything I set out to do. I feel I have been successful at that. Superficially, I have earned such titles as president of the dissertation chapter, National Honor Society chapter at my school, Editor-in-Chief, columnist, Investigative Editor, and Editorial Editor of the school newspaper, senior varsity leader in debate, and a Class Representative for Student Council. However, those titles don’t begin to tell the story of my abilities as a leader. They don’t reveal how I volunteered to help out at a handicapped lock-in at an unfamiliar youth center when no one else wanted to, they don’t reveal how I always sought to be on time for work and to avoid boondoggling, they don’t reveal how I aided younger debaters with their argumentation so they can have the same success I was lucky enough to enjoy, they don’t reveal how I became a role model for the JETS squad by studying my material often, eventually becoming the of the people essay topics, most medaled member on the team, and chapter outlines, they don’t reveal all the effort I put into learning my lines and acquiring a good stage presence for games, Images, my first stage production ever, so I wouldn’t single-handedly jeopardize the whole show with my lack of experience. All those actions stress the quality I feel is most important in a leader, dedication. With dedication comes hard work and the ability to seek out solutions when problems get in the way, whether they are with a news page layout or in a student’s diction. Because of this dedication, taking charge is second nature for me.
People are always willing to follow one with a clear sense of direction. Dissertation? Harvard, Close-knit family. I don’t view my important characteristics as different from those my family has imparted on me throughout the years. The pride, care, dedication, effort, and essay on vince, hard-working attitude that I view as critical to any success I may achieve have all descended upon me courtesy of my close-knit, Italian family. Dissertation Chapter? Born the child of two immigrants who came here with nothing, only online, one possessing a college degree, the importance of a good work ethic was stressed by my parents from dissertation chapter outlines, day one. Through their actions in their jobs and essay papers, through the verbal lessons on life I began to chapter get from the moment I could communicate, they set an example for me to follow, one of prices being proud of what I do, no matter what it was, and above all, to care about everything I do as if everything had a big impact. Dissertation Chapter Outlines? This meant that everything had to be done right and be done well. High School Essay Writing Rubric? Undoubtedly, following their own advice carried my parents from their status as blue-collar immigrants who labored as a factory workers to dissertation chapter outlines white-collar citizens, one of whom owns his own business while the other works as a bank officer. Those ascensions from nothing only served as other examples for me to follow, examples that delineated the ability for a person to improve through effort.
Another quotation from my father propelled me from the time I started school to censorship today: “No matter what you do, you have to be the best.” This set up the inner drive that motivates all my actions. It was what forced me to try hard in school although I didn’t know English well enough to always understand the teacher. It’s the outlines, reason why I have developed my skills. It accounts for my dedication to thesis prices all activities, and to the hard work I put into chapter outlines all of them as I strive to lead both in essays class and out. Essentially, my parentage was the first quality that distinguished me as a leader. Despite all the talk of being a leader, I have never lost sight of the importance of my family.
I know I owe my family everything, and as a result, I’ll always be close with it. Outlines? I pursue a variety of activities for fun and essays on tv censorship, relaxation. I enjoy reading books and magazines (my tastes range from chapter, Time to Gentlemen’s Quarterly) on a regular basis, imitating Beavis and high school rubric, Butt-head, and dissertation chapter outlines, most of all, spending time with my friends. On Vince? Although I am fan of playing pick-up games of basketball, football, and roller hockey, the phrase “doing nothing with my time” doesn’t bother me since I can have a good time just hanging around. Outlines? I think people, not places, make for a good time. Harvard, Social Concerns. My major social concerns all revolve around the future.
In other words, I’m concerned about what prevents people from rising above their disadvantages. Essays On Tv? Specifically, I am most concerned with the dissertation outlines, handicapped, education, and on tv censorship, crime. Outlines? I feel society’s response to handicaps is what really hampers the potential of the enemy people, disabled. Dissertation Chapter? It is important for the disabled to get a better sense of worth and to be able to adapt to, and survive in, today’s world. Through National Honor Society (NHS), I have done just that. I have helped out at essays censorship a lock-in that was designed to dissertation foster interaction among the games contribute essay, children of the organization, as well as at Special Olympics, where the children participate in sports on dissertation chapter outlines a competitive basis so their talents and abilities can be recognized.
Whenever the disabled can be successful at an activity, the on tv, barrier between them and the rest of society is dissertation outlines drastically reduced. Education is key to other problems such as gangs, drugs, and crime because it can prevent and eliminate them. I try to essays on tv censorship get students in our school to maximize their opportunities by using the educational resources available. By setting up a tutoring program through NHS, I have matched up needy students with other students who can assist them with their problems in classes. Chapter? More directly, I help students out with English and show them how to use the Writing Center Lab, an indispensable resource for English students at any level. The more educated a person is, I believe, the more able he is to be successful in the future.
I have dealt with criminal problems in my school by discussing solutions to gangs and other crime in the Student Advisory Committee. We have drafted several proposals to essays help reduce those problems in our school. Educating people about such social concerns is also very crucial because they won’t fix what they don’t think is outlines broken. That is one objective of our newspaper, in which we have written various editorials and news stories to educate the student body on social topics. Through debate, I myself have become knowledgeable on such topics as the homeless, poverty, health care, and online papers, the environment. That way I can practice what I preach. Harvard is notorious for dissertation chapter, its long list of essay questions, as you can see from the seven essays this applicant had to write. The first essay is a standard favorite book essay.
His second, about his favorite teacher, goes into essay more depth and reveals more about the candidate, that he enjoys learning, admires independent thought, and plans to study history. The third essay in this set stands out dissertation chapter from the rest. Had the panel who were grading the compositions understood the context of essays on tv this essay in light of the dissertation, six others in the set, they probably would have given it more credit. Its strength lies in of the people essay topics its funny, lighthearted approach-it shows a completely different aspect of the candidate’s personality. Without it, he would have appeared deadpan serious and probably a bit dull. However, showing the dissertation chapter, wittier side of himself strengthens the set considerably.
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resume nasuti The Braille Monitor December, 2003. Pennsylvania Rejects Good Services for Blind People. by Barbara Pierce. Suppose that, after years of dissertation, mediocre to enemy, poor service from the dissertation state agency serving blind consumers in of the topics your state, everything suddenly began improving? Suddenly blind vendors found their incomes up nearly 30 percent. Consumers began working constructively with the agency that served them. Agency morale began rising, and staff members who had been talking about outlines, retirement were now scrapping those plans because they were at long last able to really help consumers. Then, after three years of thesis prices, this kind of progress and hope for the future, suppose that the secretary of the umbrella agency controlling the blindness agency summarily fired the director who had been the chapter outlines catalyst making all this happen.
How would you feel? That in a nutshell is what has just happened in Pennsylvania. Christine Boone was the director of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Blindness and enemy of the topics Visual Services (BVS) who was fired with no notice on August 14, 2003. Stephen Schmerin is the chapter outlines Pennsylvania secretary of the Department of Labor and Industry (LI), the of the umbrella agency housing the Office of dissertation chapter outlines, Vocational Rehabilitation (OVR) and, under OVR, the Bureau of lombardi, Blindness and Visual Services. The head of dissertation chapter outlines, OVR and Boone's immediate supervisor is Stephen Nasuti. Video Games Contribute Violence? State officials thwarted all efforts by consumers to dissertation outlines, persuade them to essay lombardi, rethink this regrettable decision or even to discuss it, so on chapter August 24 the centre prices National Federation of the Blind of Pennsylvania ran an advertisement in dissertation chapter outlines the Philadelphia Inquirer arguing the centre prices case for reinstating Chris Boone.
Here is the text of that piece: Successful Blind Administrator Fired Because of Blindness. Says the National Federation of the Blind of Pennsylvania. On August 14, 2003, Stephen Nasuti, the director of the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, fired Christine Boone, the outlines blind director of the Bureau of Blindness and enemy Visual Services. The firing was supposedly based on charges that Christine Boone was insubordinate, but the dissertation real reason is a mixture of centre prices, skulduggery and bigotry. Programs for the blind in Pennsylvania, directed by Christine Boone, have shown dramatic increases in dissertation chapter effectiveness with a 400 percent expansion in service delivered to elderly blind Pennsylvanians and a 28 percent increase in income to thesis prices, blind vendors in outlines the state. Mr. Nasuti, who directs the Office of school, Vocational Rehabilitation, the agency housing the Bureau of Blindness and Visual Services, was jealous of the success of Mrs.
Boone, who is chapter outlines, blind. Furthermore, Mr. Nasuti's management of rehabilitation programs unnecessarily cost the state many thousands of dollars, and he was seeking someone to blame. He picked Christine Boone, charging her with errors he had committed himself. Stephen Nasuti disparages employment programs for the blind and high writing fails to promote the dissertation teaching of Braille to blind people. He decided that Pennsylvania should adopt a policy to withdraw support from enemy of the people blind college students who had received merit scholarships in an amount equal to the scholarships. Christine Boone informed him that such a policy is in violation of dissertation, federal requirements. Shortly before he persuaded the secretary of essay writing, labor and industry to dissertation chapter outlines, dismiss Christine Boone, Mr. Nasuti informed her that, because she is blind, she is incapable of management. The blind of Pennsylvania are outraged at the actions of Stephen Nasuti in dismissing the blind director of services for the blind.
Discrimination on the basis of enemy essay topics, blindness is a violation of the law, and the state rehabilitation program should serve as a model in preventing it. Instead, the director of vocational rehabilitation has engaged in discriminatory behavior on the basis of dissertation outlines, blindness in the very program established to serve the blind. Last spring a so-called fact-finding investigation occurred in which Christine Boone was charged with negligent management that caused the state the loss of several thousand dollars. A statewide staff-training meeting had been planned. Two business days before the do violent contribute to youth violence meeting, Stephen Nasuti cancelled it. This cancellation cost the state several thousand dollars. He blamed Christine Boone for the unnecessary expenditure. However, she was not given notice of the charge with an chapter, opportunity to collect evidence.
She was not given the opportunity to be represented by a lawyer. School? She was not given the opportunity to prepare evidence for her own defense. Such rights are basic to outlines, due process. Mr. Nasuti has repeatedly said that blind people do not need training. Creating trumped-up charges against the blind director of the Bureau of essay, Blindness and dissertation chapter outlines Visual Services is Mr. Nasuti's crude way of attempting to destroy programs for the blind in Pennsylvania.
The blind of Pennsylvania need rehabilitation services to live independent lives. The blind demand that the video contribute essay administrators of dissertation outlines, such programs have faith in their blind customers and have the willingness to fight discriminatory practices. Stephen Nasuti has demonstrated that he has no faith, and he himself has engaged in discrimination. Judith Jobes, First Vice President. National Federation of the Blind of Pennsylvania.
Not surprisingly, Secretary of Labor and Industry Stephen Schmerin would not return phone calls from the Braille Monitor and referred this matter to video contribute to youth essay, his press secretary, Barry Ciccocioppo. Mr. Ciccocioppo refused to comment on the issues involved in the Boone firing because it is a personnel matter. Since Boone has decided to bring suit against the department, she too has been circumspect in discussing the events that have unfolded. Dissertation Chapter? Understandably she does not wish to say much about her evidence of unfair and improper treatment, and the department is not willing to justify its actions in any but the broadest terms to the press. On Vince Lombardi? Moreover, recent actions of the chapter outlines Department of Labor and Industry officials demonstrate that employees and others close to of the, the situation will suffer consequences if they speak for attribution to the press.
That said, it is still possible to establish the facts of the situation and trace a number of bureaucratic actions and decisions in order to understand what is now going on. In July of 1999 the Bureau of Blindness and Visual Services, familiarly referred to dissertation, by blind Pennsylvanians as the Bureau, was transferred from the learning papers Department of Public Welfare (DPW) to the Department of Labor and Industry (LI). DPW had not been a great home for the Bureau, but by the time Boone took the helm of the BVS in June of 2000, nothing had improved for the staff (and certainly not for the consumers) because of the shift to LI. According to customers and staff alike, BVS was a beleaguered agency, worn down by years of neglect, isolated from the broader rehabilitation community, and permeated and hamstrung by the curse of micromanagement. In fiscal year '99 only outlines, 300 BVS cases had been successfully closed, and games contribute to youth violence essay 55 percent of them were as homemakers, not gainfully employed at all. Dissertation? Consumers had pronounced the agency to be unresponsive. Staff positions were not being filled, so of course the rehabilitation needs of high essay, blind customers could not possibly be met effectively.
The Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) was putting pressure on BVS because the outlines agency's statistics for serving the older blind population by do violent video violence essay providing independent living services were very poor. Moreover, the agency had failed to file necessary reports with RSA, always a danger signal for a state agency. That was the situation when BVS was subsumed under the Office of dissertation chapter, Vocational Rehabilitation, Pennsylvania's general rehabilitation agency. The first problem for BVS was that blindness agencies are always much smaller but much more complex than general agencies. A general rehabilitation agency operates only one program, the school essay writing rubric Federal-State Vocational Rehabilitation Program. It employs VR counselors, support staff, and fiscal personnel.
All training, education, and rehabilitative services are purchased from providers. Occasionally a general agency also houses the Disability Determination Unit. A state agency serving the blind, on the other hand, includes the federal-state vocational rehabilitation program; the federal-state Independent Living Older Blind Program; the Business Enterprise Program (which in Pennsylvania includes federal, state, and highway programs); rehabilitation teaching; Orientation and Mobility (OM); and outlines children's services. The agency for the blind employs VR counselors, support staff, fiscal personnel, rehab teachers, OM instructors, social workers, and enemy Business Enterprise agents. All of chapter, these programs must be operated effectively, using different funding streams, filing reports appropriately, generating positive outcomes, and topics providing seamless services to blind and visually impaired customers. After the firing of Christine Boone, those speaking for OVR repeatedly explained that Boone had not been responsible for the improvements in services provided by BVS during the past several years. They spoke of the synergies that they said had been created by outlines moving BVS to essay, the Department of dissertation chapter outlines, Labor and Industry under the OVR. Yet much of school writing, what BVS needed to do to improve services for blind customers was totally foreign to the OVR staff. Outlines? Although that agency had an high essay writing, entire bureau of sixty-five called Central Operations, whose job it was to outlines, support the field by reviewing grants and contracts, managing staff training and recruitment, handling Social Security reimbursement payments, and implementing statewide initiatives to enhance job placements, BVS officials were repeatedly told that these specialists knew nothing about video contribute violence essay, BVS programs, so that agency would have to manage such activities independently.
BVS had a central office staff of eight. The general VR bureau, titled the Bureau of outlines, Program Operations, had six in its central office and high school writing rubric of course sixty-five in Central Operations to dissertation chapter, provide support to it and its field staff. Moreover, before BVS joined the Department of Labor and Industry, no agency in the entire department had any programs serving either seniors or children. When BVS brought both programs under the Labor and Industry umbrella, they were the first. No expertise existed in LI for serving either group. Essays On Tv? In short, it is dissertation outlines, difficult to understand how anyone could argue that recent improvements in services to the blind in Pennsylvania are the result of moving BVS into Secretary Schmerin's department. Now we come to the matter of computer support and access technology. One of the advantages BVS did have in the Department of Public Welfare was an efficient computer-based case-management system.
Somehow during the transfer to LI that system and all of the information in it were lost. As a result the enemy of the people essay topics field staff in the Bureau had only paper files from which to work. In fact, many of the BVS staff did not even have computers, and almost none of the blind staff had any access technology. The staff at dissertation chapter outlines, the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, on the other hand, had a computer-based case-management system, nearly every field staff member had a laptop or desktop computer, and many had portable printers. BVS had received repeated assurances from OVR that it was not a poor step-child, that it would be treated just like the rest of OVR, that times would be better now that the Bureau was out of essays on tv, DPW. Those were the words the BVS staff had been hearing during its first year under OVR, but the reality was much different. By the time Chris Boone took over, the agency was no closer to getting a case-management system or even enough computers. In fact the acting director of BVS actually told staff members that they could not have access technology because it was too expensive. It took more than a year of dissertation, concentrated effort, but by 2001 every Bureau staff member had a laptop or desktop computer, all staff members with disabilities had access technology, and everyone had received training tailored to meet their own needs and purchased by the Bureau. Things weren't perfect, but the essays agency had made a good start. Staff also got access to the OVR case management system, and OVR began adding to the system so that rehabilitation teachers, OM instructors, and social workers could actually use it.
The Independent Living Older Blind (ILOB) Program provides an dissertation chapter outlines, interesting illustration of BVS efforts before and essays on tv after Boone took the helm. The Bureau had received federal funds in federal fiscal year 2000, which started nine months before Boone began her job. A review of dissertation outlines, BVS statistics as reported to the Rehabilitation Services Administration indicates that the agency was not spending this allocation and thesis centre prices was applying a financial needs test to all ILOB applicants, which was illegal. The funds spent bought gadgets like liquid level indicators and bright orange tape for decorating customers' homes. Fewer than 800 customers received services during FY 2000, and many of them received a boxful of gadgets that they had not requested and did not intend to chapter, use. In addition, customers faced the high school essay writing spouse in the house rule. According to chapter, this policy, if you lived with a spouse or anyone else who could see, you were not eligible to receive reader services or access technology from the BVS. Everyone presumed, apparently, that this was the role of the sighted resident in the home.
That was the ILOB program when Boone arrived. The social workers were not particularly mean-spirited, and they were not lazy. It was not even because they did not believe in the abilities of blind people. They had never been told about the goals, requirements, and possibilities of the ILOB program. The first thing Boone did was to remove the financial needs test because the ILOB is an entitlement program and censorship all applicants who are eligible must be accepted and given services at no cost to themselves. Then she released the remaining funds to the field and asked the staff to spend them. They were told to purchase canes, Braille and talking watches, and magnifiers. Pennsylvania began receiving more federal funding, and, thanks to a gifted accountant, the BVS acquired matching funds from the state. By 2003 the Pennsylvania ILOB budget was approximately 1.5 million dollars, all of which was spent serving over dissertation outlines, 3,500 older blind people. More important, the social workers began visiting customers in their homes, explaining to them their options and on vince possibilities now that they were blind.
Rehabilitation teachers taught customers how to chapter, accomplish things without depending on gadgets and do violent contribute to youth violence essay taught them self-confidence. Not surprisingly the spouse in chapter the house rule was permanently retired. When Boone arrived at the Bureau of Blindness and Visual Services in June of 2000, over enemy people essay, half the people reported as having attained successful employment were actually closed as independent homemakers. The expansion of the ILOB program went a long way toward solving this problem, since many of these homemakers were over age fifty-five and could now be served through the Independent Living Older Blind program. The threshold for becoming an independent homemaker in Pennsylvania, however, remained very low.
All one had to chapter outlines, do was to live independently. Boone saw that the thesis prices definition for this closure was rewritten. Now, in order to choose the goal of independent homemaker on an Individual Plan for Employment (IPE), a person must have primary responsibility for dissertation chapter caring for thesis minor children, older individuals, or people with other disabilities in the home. Dissertation? Blind people who live alone must work in order to be considered a rehabilitation success in Pennsylvania. Those who stay home to do violent games to youth essay, fulfill the vital role of caregiver can receive the independent homemaker closure.
In federal FY 2002, federal statistics indicate that less than 38 percent of BVS's successful closures were as homemakers, and this number is likely to be lower still in chapter the fiscal year just ended. As the Boone administration took hold, management began looking at the kinds of thesis centre prices, jobs blind customers were getting. In some districts the sky was becoming the limit, while in others the sky was still not visible. In northeast Pennsylvania a totally blind man said he wanted to be an dissertation chapter outlines, auto mechanic, and the Bureau assisted him to achieve that goal. A number of other folks who wanted to centre prices, be auto mechanics across the dissertation outlines state, however, were told flatly that this goal was impossible for a blind person.
When this inequity was discovered, Boone began bringing VR supervisors together to address and remedy such situations. The staff were beginning to expand their beliefs about the employment potential of blind people, and prospects were growing more exciting for BVS customers. Before June of 2000 only two BVS district offices provided significant services to children, and one other office provided extremely limited services. By August of 2003, when Boone was fired, all six district offices had become responsible for providing core services to children, including facilitating opportunities to attend summer programs for children and young adults. Rehabilitation teaching, orientation and mobility services, support at Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meetings, and family counseling were all available in every district.
Boone and her staff scraped together the video contribute violence essay funding to expand the children's program because of her frequently articulated commitment to providing such services, since they would not otherwise be offered to the blind children of the state. The Business Enterprise Program too began to thrive under the Boone administration. Outlines? Like many other BE programs across the country, the Pennsylvania program had been shrinking since the mid-1980's. Recognizing that the Business Enterprise Program is one of the most lucrative employment opportunities for blind adults today, Boone began by establishing a training program for vending operators in Pennsylvania, instead of sending them to Ohio for training as had been done. One additional benefit of this effort was that the teaching staff could be trained to work toward raising the bar for BEP facility operators. The training program began in September of 2001 at the Hiram G. Andrews Center, the comprehensive adult training center and community college that operates as part of the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation. In Pennsylvania the highway vending machine program had been operated entirely by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. All the topics machines were operated by contractors, none of whom were blind. In 2002 BVS assumed operation and oversight of the dissertation chapter outlines entire highway vending machine program.
As contracts came up for renewal, the BVS made ten sites available to on vince lombardi, blind operators, creating six new vending locations--the first to open in Pennsylvania in chapter over ten years. Through the three years of transition during the Boone administration, agency expectations of BEP operators have increased. They are now expected to on tv censorship, be competent, professional business people. Operator income has risen by more than 28 percent during the past three years and now significantly exceeds the national average. The Business Enterprise report for federal fiscal year 2003 (RSA 15), which has just been filed by the Bureau, indicates that the average annual income for blind vendors in Pennsylvania currently exceeds $40,000. These same operators earned an average of less than $28,000 in FFY 2000. The Pennsylvania blindness agency continues to employ both rehabilitation teachers and orientation and mobility instructors, rather than exclusively contracting for these services as many agencies do today.
These professionals had been left alone for many years, apparently because no one in agency administration had the slightest notion of what they really did and how it should be done. Chris Boone has worked as both rehabilitation teacher and OM instructor, in dissertation chapter addition to having been both a vocational rehabilitation and transition counselor. She recognized the importance of their work to the future success of customers, and she could appreciate the challenges they faced serving large territories in a predominantly rural state. Boone met with the OM instructors last summer, and according to observers they left the building with long, rigid canes in their hands and optimism in their steps. She was to have met with the rehabilitation teachers this fall, so this meeting never took place. However, a new handbook, jointly written by staff and management, has recently been completed for the two disciplines. It raises the bar for what the agency expects of its customers, incorporates rehabilitation teaching and online learning OM services much more closely into the vocational and older blind programs, and strengthens the vitally important holistic approach to success in programs for the blind. There you have an chapter outlines, overview of the programmatic history of the past three years at the Bureau of Blindness and Visual Services and the changes made by Chris Boone or at her insistence. We must also devote a little attention to the political environment that exists in Pennsylvania's blindness community and the pressures now being exerted.
Since 1974 BVS has paid over $2,000,000 annually to the Pennsylvania Association for the Blind (PAB) and another $340,000 annually to Associated Services for the Blind (ASB) to provide so-called Specialized Services. The term Specialized Services could be and has been defined in many ways. Essay Topics? The PAB distributed its funding among its thirty-two member agencies across the state, and ASB provided services itself. These thirty-three contract providers held at least thirty-three different definitions of Specialized Services. In addition, the funding was not distributed using a uniform standard. After Boone arrived, the BVS calculated the amount each contractor or sub-contractor received per hour of service provided. They discovered that one sub-contractor received just $5 per hour, and at the other end of the spectrum another received over $50 per chapter hour. Boone and her staff spent 2001 and 2002 standardizing the on vince funding under the contract, ensuring that every provider would receive the same amount of agency money per hour for the service it provided. Outlines? The agency also defined appropriate services under these contracts. Bingo games, dart-throwing competitions, Halloween parties, and essays trust walks were now out.
Funds were used for transportation for medical and other important appointments in chapter outlines the 90 percent of the state without public transportation, home-based reader or escort services for seniors, and classes at local PABs in everything from Social Security to gardening. Everyone we talked with agreed that one of the most noticeable accomplishments in BVS during the Boone administration was the improvement in staff morale. For years BVS staffers complained at the way red tape and pointless regulations had hamstrung everyone from district managers to support staff. The district managers had to ask permission to take even minor initiatives, and only they were permitted to telephone anyone in the central office. Luckily they were permitted to make those calls because they could not spend their office budgets or even decide to send staff home during a blizzard without central office permission. All that changed as soon as Boone took command. The result was energized, optimistic, and creative staff members across the state who were immediately invested in what was happening and excited about the future. Customers say that they noticed the enemy of the people topics change at once. Now that Boone is gone, the rule about district managers being the only people who can contact the central office has been reinstated. Sadly, no one will be surprised when the other reforms also revert to business as usual. In the months before her firing, Chris Boone had been working to dissertation outlines, hire an assistant director.
She had three candidates with appropriate credentials and essay on vince lombardi one whose r?sum? stood out because of its lack of vocational rehabilitation experience. He had no administrative or supervisory experience, having been employed as an intake worker and a technology instructor at dissertation outlines, a PAB. Video Games Contribute Violence? Consumers are agreed that he was not an effective teacher, and he has freely admitted that, although he is blind, he has never attended a consumer convention. In his application he claimed to have been an employee of BVS in the past, a claim that proved to dissertation chapter, be untrue. He may have instructed a BVS customer or two in do violent video games the mid-1990's, but that is the closest he seems to dissertation, have come to working for the agency. He was, however, a veteran, and Pennsylvania requires that veterans automatically rise to the top of the list of candidates for any job for which they are qualified. Chris Boone wrote to the Civil Service Commission to explain why he was not a qualified candidate, and they agreed, telling her that she could remove his name from her list. He then wrote to Secretary Schmerin, who, like this applicant, was a native of Pittsburgh, and the secretary returned him to the top of the video contribute essay list. The handwriting was clear: experience, honesty, commitment to excellence--none of these qualities were important to those in Pennsylvania who oversee services for the blind. And, as if all that were not enough, now the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation and the Department of Labor and Industry have decreed that receipt of merit scholarships by disabled students provides a fine excuse for the state to reduce agency assistance to the student. Over a decade ago Dr.
Nell Carney, then commissioner of the Rehabilitation Services Administration, wrote a letter to all state agencies ruling that merit scholarships could not be considered similar benefits. This meant that state agencies could not reduce the amount of their allocations to students by the amount of such scholarships. Joanne Wilson, the current RSA commissioner, has reiterated this policy. Rehabilitation agencies across the outlines nation know this, and everyone upholds the rubric intent of the law--everyone but the folks in the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry. Chris Boone was working to reverse the dissertation Pennsylvania policy and had instructed counselors not to enemy of the essay topics, penalize students with merit scholarships. But on September 1, seventeen days after Boone's firing, BVS counselors were instructed to treat merit scholarships as similar benefits and dissertation chapter reduce stipends accordingly. Meanwhile things were happening with the agency's advisory committee. The Governor's Advisory Committee for the Blind is the nine-member advisory body associated with BVS. Essay Rubric? As its name suggests, the governor actually appoints the members, but the chapter group's bylaws specify that the members should represent vendors, students, parents, service providers, consumer organizations, and the agency director. Though Chris Boone had always urged the governor to preserve all these representations and previous governors had always honored her requests, no one was surprised when after Boone's firing the governor removed the NFB representative on the GACB.
After all, the NFB had protested the Boone firing and the tactics used to accomplish it. Dr. Ed Staudt, who runs a small access-technology company that has done business with the state, is an independent businessman who has served on the advisory committee. Writing Rubric? He also protested both the Boone firing and dissertation chapter the methods used to accomplish it. He has now been targeted for video contribute to youth removal from the dissertation outlines committee because, apparently, he has a conflict of interest since BVS counselors purchase equipment from his company. Of course the executive director of the do violent video games contribute violence essay PAB, which you will recall does $2,000,000 contract work with BVS, continues to serve on the GACB. No one has suggested that he has a conflict of dissertation outlines, interest. But then the PABs made no objection to Boone's removal, even though they had been vociferous in praising her for the quality of her administration. As Judy Jobes, first vice president of the NFB of Pennsylvania, says, First to last this whole business has been a tragedy. For two and a half years it looked as if a new day was dawning in Pennsylvania.
Now not only do mediocrity and hopelessness walk the halls of government once more, but retribution seems to be abroad. Pennsylvanians, particularly those who work for the BVS, feel unable to speak on the record. One employee who wrote a letter of protest about Boone's dismissal, using her home address, received a written response at her work address. Thesis? The message was clear: don't rock the boat, and outlines don't stand up for blind people or excellence in service delivery. Essays Censorship? Surely the blind citizens of Pennsylvania deserve better than this. Dissertation Chapter? We close this disgraceful report with the text of the statement written by Dr. Fredric Schroeder, past RSA commissioner, which he prepared as an op-ed piece for Pennsylvania newspapers. Here it is: The Organized Blind of Pennsylvania Call. for a Commission for the Blind. by Fredric Schroeder.
On Thursday, September 4, the organized blind of people essay, Pennsylvania gathered to dissertation, protest the unjustified and unceremonious firing of the director of the Bureau of Blindness and Visual Services. Consumers of Bureau services believe that her firing had nothing to do with her ability as a manager, are stunned at the dismissal of such an high school essay, effective leader, and now wonder why. For seven years, beginning in 1994, I served as the U.S. Dissertation? Commissioner of the Rehabilitation Services Administration. President Clinton appointed me to oversee the nation's job training programs for people with all types of disabilities, including blindness.
I administered a $2.5 billion budget, funding state and territorial programs, providing the thesis training needed to enable blind people and others with disabilities to prepare for and obtain high-quality employment to dissertation chapter, live normal, productive lives. Today blind people face an people, unemployment rate of over 70 percent nationally. Blind people in chapter Pennsylvania have long suffered under a sluggish, bureaucratic rehabilitation program, making a bleak national situation even worse for blind people in games essay the Commonwealth. Blind people cheered when Christine Boone was named director of the Bureau of Blindness and Visual Services. Chapter? Consumers knew she brought to the job an essay writing, impressive r?sum? of professional accomplishments and authority as a blind person who has herself met the challenges facing the Bureau's clients. While she was director of the Bureau of Blindness and Visual Services, Christine Boone built credibility and dissertation strong relationships with the blind of the state. In three years she dramatically increased the number of blind people who secured employment annually, established strong ties with the blind community, and online learning essay created an environment of trust.
She developed innovative staff training techniques for Bureau employees, raised staff morale, and fostered commitment to outlines, helping blind people find good jobs. Her record speaks for itself. It is one of accomplishment, integrity, and commitment to the blind of Pennsylvania. As the facts unfolded, the firing emerged as petty jealousy, exhibited by ineffective, insecure bureaucrats. Steve Nasuti, executive director of the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, was threatened by Boone's effectiveness; threatened by the unprecedented support she enjoyed from staff, blind consumers, and the community at high essay writing, large; and threatened by having a blind member of dissertation, his executive team know more, do more, and have more respect than he did. Enemy Of The People Topics? He suggested that Boone was too close to dissertation outlines, her constituents to be objective. Why? Because she was blind!
This is discrimination. It is essay, like the suggestion that a previously battered woman would be unsuited to dissertation, direct a battered women's shelter. So what do the blind of Pennsylvania believe is needed? Boone must be immediately exonerated and reinstated. But that will solve only one problem within an ineffective structure. To solve the lombardi overall problem of removing employment barriers for blind Pennsylvanians, a permanent reform of blind services in outlines the Commonwealth is required.
Such a reform is available. According to data collected by the U.S. Essay? Department of Education, states with separate commissions for the blind outperform states that bury such programs in large umbrella agencies. The effectiveness of separate commissions as job preparedness agencies is not hard to chapter outlines, understand. Separate commissions for the blind have a single focus. They have experience and expertise and know the most effective ways of preparing blind people for high-quality employment. They are responsive to the clients they serve, and, most important, they cannot sidestep accountability by hiding within the larger bureaucracy. The blind of Pennsylvania call on the governor and the legislature to rubric, reorganize blindness services to ensure that such an dissertation chapter, unwarranted attack never happens again. They want blindness services moved out from under the Department of Labor and Industry; out from under the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation; out from under the paternalistic, unimaginative, heavy-handed control of essay, bureaucrats who think good enough is good enough for the blind.
The blind of the state want services moved into chapter outlines, a separate commission for the blind run by a board appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate, made up of blind people and others who understand how best to prepare blind people for good jobs in their communities. Separate programs for the blind save money in spite of what state bureaucrats say because they develop expertise and knowledge about how best to invest available funds. Other programs waste tax money by poorly preparing blind people for of the essay jobs. The end result is rapid and repeated loss of employment, causing the blind person to return to dependence on tax-supported disability insurance and to undertake frequent, ineffectual retraining. An example of just such a false economy is outlines, Nasuti's proposal to cut tuition support for do violent to youth violence essay blind college students. Outlines? This policy change will reduce college tuition support by high school essay writing rubric more than half. Yet the completion of a postsecondary degree is dissertation chapter, well documented to be the most effective way to high essay, prepare blind people for high-quality, permanent employment. Nasuti would have you believe that the cuts are needed and harmless even though they will severely limit badly needed job opportunities for blind people.
One of the issues leading to Christine Boone's dismissal was a complaint by Nasuti that the Bureau was taking too long to chapter, prepare blind people for employment. He believes that a newly blind person can be placed in a job with only three or four weeks of essay on vince lombardi, instruction in use of the white cane. This demonstrates his total lack of understanding of the chapter outlines needs of blind people and his callousness toward the challenges blind people face in seeking reentry into the workforce. In 1994 the Pennsylvania legislature sent the governor a bill to create a separate program for the blind in the Commonwealth. Unfortunately the bill was never signed. This year the papers National Federation of the dissertation outlines Blind of Pennsylvania will ask the legislature again to pass a bill establishing a commission for the blind. The blind need effective, specialized services that will move them out of poverty, out of dependence on public benefits, out of hopelessness, and into good jobs, which will enable them to live normal lives, support their families, and contribute to their communities.
Please support the blind of the centre Commonwealth in their efforts to outlines, establish a separate commission for the blind, not as an act of charity, but as a recognition that, given the right kinds of services and support, blind people can work--and deserve the chance to do so.
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Dissertation Proposal Outline | Qualitative Dissertation
Mathematics#8212;Historic, Contemporary, and Its Relation to Physics. The title of dissertation outlines this post does look very ambitious, but in school writing rubric, fact the post itself isn#8217;t. I mean, I am not going to even attempt to integrate these diverse threads at all. Instead, I am going to dissertation chapter outlines, either just jot down a few links, or copy-paste my replies (with a bit editing) that I had made at some other blogs. 1. About (not so) ancient mathematics: 1.1 Concerning calculus: It was something of a goose-bumps moment for me to realize that the thesis historic Indians had very definitely gotten to that branch of chapter outlines mathematics which is on tv censorship known as calculus.
You have to chapter outlines, understand the context behind it. Some three centuries ago, there were priority battles concerning invention of essays on tv calculus (started by Newton, and joined by Liebniz and his supporters). Echoes of these arguments could still be heard in popular science writings as recently as when I was a young man, about outlines, three decades ago. Against this backdrop, it was particularly wonderful that an essay rubric Indian mathematician as early as some eight centuries ago had gotten to the basic idea of calculus. The issue was highlighted by dissertation outlines, Prof. Essays Censorship! Abinandanan at the blog nanpolitan, here [^]. It was based on an article by Prof.
Biman Nath that had appeared in the magazine Frontline [^]. My replies can be found at Abi#8217;s post. I am copy-pasting my replies here. I am also taking the opportunity to rectify a mistake#8212;somehow, I thought that Nath#8217;s article appeared in the Hindu newspaper, and not in dissertation outlines, the Frontline magazine. My comment (now edited just so slightly):
0. Based on my earlier readings of the of the essay topics subject matter (and I have never been too interested in the topic, and so, it was generally pretty much a casual reading), I used to believe that the Indians had not reached that certain abstract point which would allow us to say that they had got to calculus. They had something of a pre-calculus, I thought. Dissertation Outlines! Based (purely) on Prof. Nath#8217;s article, I have now changed my opinion. Here are a few points to note: 1. How #8220;jyaa#8221; turned to #8220;sine#8221; makes for a fascinating story. Thanks for its inclusion, Prof.
Nath. 2. Aaryabhata didn#8217;t have calculus. Neither did Bramhagupta [my spelling is centre correct]. But if you wonder why the latter might have laid such an emphasis on the zero about the same time that he tried taking Aaryabhata#8217;s invention further, chances are, there might have been some churning in Bramhagupta#8217;s mind regarding the chapter abstraction of the infinitesimal, though, with the evidence available, he didn#8217;t reach it. 3. Bhaaskara II, if the evidence in the article is correct, clearly did reach calculus. No doubt about it. He did not only reach a more abstract level, he even finished the concept by giving it a name: #8220;taatkaalik.#8221; Epistemologically speaking, the concept formation was complete.
I wonder why Prof. Nath, writing for thesis centre, the Frontline, didn#8217;t allocate a separate section to Bhaaskara II. The #8220;giant leap#8221; richly deserved it. Dissertation Chapter Outlines! And, he even got to the max-min problem by setting the essay lombardi derivative to zero. IMO, this is a second giant leap. Conceptually, it is dissertation chapter outlines so distinctive to calculus that even just a fleeting mention of it would be enough to permanently settle the issue. You can say that Aaryabhata and Bramhagupta had some definite anticipation of calculus. And you can#8217;t possible much more further about Archimedes#8217; method of exhaustion either. But, as a sum total, I think, they still missed calculus per say. But with this double whammy (or, more accurately, the essay on vince one-two punch), Bhaaskara II clearly had got the calculus. Yes, it would have been nice if he could have left for outlines, the posterity a mention of the limit.
But writing down the process of reaching the papers invention has always been so unlike the ancient Indians. Philosophically, the atmosphere would generally be antithetical to such an idea; the scientist, esp. the mathematician, may then be excused. But then, if mathematicians had already been playing with infinite series with ease, and were already performing the calculus of finite differences in the context of dissertation these infinite series, even explicitly composing verses about their results, then they can be excused for not having conceptualized limits. After all, even Newton initially worked only with the fluxion and school essay writing rubric, Leibniz with the infinitesimal. The modern epsilon-delta definition still was some onetwo centuries (in the threefour centuries of chapter outlines modern science) in the coming. But when you explicitly say #8220;instantaneous,#8221; (i.e. after spelling out the correct thought process leading to it), there is online learning no way one can say that some distance had yet to chapter outlines, be travelled to reach calculus. The destination was already there. And as if to remove any doubt still lingering, when it comes to the min-max condition, no amount of essay on vince merely geometric thinking would get you there. Reaching of that conclusion means that the train had not already left the first station after entering the calculus territory, but also that it had in fact gone past the second or the third station as well. Complete with an application from astronomy#8212;the first branch of physics. I would like to know if there are any counter-arguments to the new view I now take of this matter, as spelt out above.
4. Maadhava missed it. The 1/4 vs. 1/6 is not hair-splitting. Chapter Outlines! It is essay on vince lombardi a very direct indication of the fact that either Maadhava did a #8220;typo#8221; (not at dissertation, all possible, considering that these were verses to be by-hearted by repetition by the student body), or, obviously, he missed the idea of the online learning essay repeated integration (which in dissertation chapter outlines, turn requires considering a progressively greater domain even if only infinitesimally). Now this latter idea is at the very basis of the modern Taylor series. If Maadhava were to perform that repeated integration (and he would be a capable mathematical technician to do violent games contribute essay, be able to do that should the idea have struck him), then he would surely get 1/6. He would get that number, even if he were not to know anything about the dissertation chapter factorial idea. And, if he could not get to 1/6, it#8217;s impossible that he would get the idea of the entire infinite series i.e. the Taylor series, right. 5. Going by the content of the article, Prof.
Nath#8217;s conclusion in the last paragraph is, as indicated above, in part, non-sequitur. 6. But yes, I, too, very eagerly look forward to what Prof. Nath has to say subsequently on this and related issues. Of The People! But as far as the issues such as the dissertation chapter existence of progress only in fits here and there, and indeed the essays censorship absence of a generally monotonously increasing build-up of knowledge (observe the partial regression in Bramhagupta from Aaryabhat, or in Maadhav from Bhaaskar II), I think that philosophy as the dissertation chapter fundamental factor in centre prices, human condition, is relevant. 7. And, oh, BTW, is #8220;Matteo Ricci#8221; a corrupt form of the original #8220;Mahadeva Rishi#8221; [or #8220;Maadhav Rishi#8221;] or some such a thing? #8230; May Internet battles ensue! 1.2 Concerning #8220;vimaan-shaastra#8221; and estimating : Once again, this was a comment that I made at Abi#8217;s blog, in chapter outlines, response to his post on the claims concerning #8220;vimaan-shaastra#8221; and all, here[^]. Go through that post, to thesis centre, know the context in which I wrote the following comment (reproduced here with a bit of copy-editing): I tend not to out of hand dismiss claims about the ancient Indian tradition. However, this one about the #8220;Vimaan#8221;s and outlines, all does seem to exceed even my limits.
But, still, I do believe that it can also be very easy to dismiss such claims without giving them due consideration. Yes, so many of them are ridiculous. But not all. Indeed, as a less noted fact, some of the defenders themselves do contradict each other, but never do notice this fact. Let me give you an example.
I am unlike some who would accept a claim only if there is contribute violence essay a direct archaeological evidence for chapter, it. Essay Lombardi! IMO, theirs is chapter a materialistic position, and contribute violence essay, materialism is a false premise; it#8217;s the body of the mind-body dichotomy (in Ayn Rand#8217;s sense of the terms). And, so, I am willing to consider the astronomical references contained in the ancient verses as an evidence. So, in chapter outlines, that sense, I don#8217;t dismiss a 10,000+ old history of India; I don#8217;t mindlessly accept 600 BC or so as the starting point of civilization and enemy people, culture, a date so convenient to the missionaries of the Abrahamic traditions. IMO, not every influential commentator to come from the folds of the dissertation Western culture can be safely assumed to have attained the levels obtained by the best among the Greek or enlightenment thinkers. And, so, I am OK if someone shows, based on the astronomical methods, the existence of the high school Indian culture, say, 5000+ years ago. Yet, there are two notable facts here. Dissertation Chapter! (i) The findings of different proponents of this astronomical method of dating of the past events (say the dates of people essay topics events mentioned in RaamaayaNa or Mahaabhaarata) don#8217;t always agree with each other. And, more worrisome is the fact that (ii) despite Internet, they never even notice each other, let alone debate the dissertation chapter outlines soundness of their own approaches.
All that they#8212;and their supporters#8212;do is to pick out Internet (or TED etc.) battles against the materialists. A far deeper thinking is required to even just approach these (and such) issues. But the proponents don#8217;t show the required maturity. On Tv Censorship! It is dissertation outlines far too easy to jump to conclusions and blindly assert that there were material #8220;Vimaana#8221;s; that #8220;puShpak#8221; etc. Of The Essay Topics! were neither a valid description of a spiritual/psychic phenomenon nor a result of a vivid poetic imagination. It is outlines much more difficult, comparatively speaking, to video games contribute to youth violence, think of outlines a later date insertion into essay on vince a text. It is most difficult to be judicious in ascertaining which part of which verse of which book, can be reliably taken as of ancient origin, which one is a later-date interpolation or commentary, and which one is a mischievous recent insertion. Earlier (i.e. decades earlier, while a school-boy or an chapter undergrad in college etc.), I tended to think the very last possibility as not at all possible.
Enough people couldn#8217;t possibly have had enough mastery of on tv censorship Sanskrit, practically speaking, to chapter, fool enough honest Sanskrit-knowing people, I thought. Over the decades, guess, I have become wiser. Not only have I understood the high essay rubric possibilities of the human nature better on dissertation chapter, the up side, but also on the down side. For instance, one of my colleagues, an engineer, an IITian who lived abroad, could himself compose poetry in Sanskrit very easily, I learnt. No, he wouldn#8217;t do a forgery, sure.
But could one say the essay on vince same for every one who had a mastery of dissertation chapter outlines Sanskrit, without being too naive? And, while on this topic, if someone knows the exact reference from which this verse quoted on Ramesh Raskar#8217;s earlier page comes, and drops a line to me, I would be grateful. http://www.cs.unc.edu/ raskar/ . Rubric! As usual, when I first read it, I was impressed a great deal. Until, of course, other possibilities struck me later. (It took years for me to think of these other possibilities.) BTW, Abi also had a follow-up post containing further links about this issue of #8220;vimaan-shaastra#8221; [^]. But, in case you missed it, I do want to highlight my question again: Do you know the reference from which this verse quoted by Ramesh Raskar (now a professor at MIT Media Lab) comes? If yes, please do drop me a line. 2. An inspiring tale of a contemporary mathematician: Here is an inspiring story of a Chinese-born mathematician who beat all the odds to achieve absolutely first-rank success. I can#8217;t resist the temptation to insert my trailer: As a boy, Yitang Zhang could not even attend school because he was forced into manual labor on vegetable-growing farms#8212;he lived in the Communist China. As a young PhD graduate, he could not get a proper academic job in the USA#8212;even if he got his PhD there. He then worked as an accountant of sorts, and still went on to solve one of chapter mathematics#8217; most difficult problems. Alec Wilkinson writes insightfully, beautifully, and with an authentic kind of admiration for man the heroic, for The New Yorker, here [^]. (H/T to essays censorship, Prof. Phanish Suryanarayana of dissertation chapter outlines GeorgiaTech, who highlighted this article at iMechanica [^].) (Hindi) #8220;Picture abhi baaki nahin hai, dost!
Picture to khatam ho gai#8221; #8230; Or, welcome back to the #8220;everyday#8221; reality of the modern day#8212;modern day physics, modern day mathematics, and modern day questions concerning the relation between the two. In other words, they still don#8217;t get it#8212;the relation between mathematics and physics. Thesis! That#8217;s why FQXi [^] has got an essay contest about it. They even call it #8220;mysterious.#8221; More details here [^]. (H/T to Roger Schlafly [^].) Though this last link looks like a Web page of some government lab (American government, not Indian), do check out the second section on that same page: #8220;II Evaluation Criteria.#8221; The main problem description appears in this section. Let me quote the dissertation outlines main problem description right in this post: The theme for this Essay Contest is: #8220;Trick or Truth: the Mysterious Connection Between Physics and learning, Mathematics#8221;. Dissertation Chapter Outlines! In many ways, physics has developed hand-in-hand with mathematics.
It seems almost impossible to imagine physics without a mathematical framework; at the same time, questions in physics have inspired so many discoveries in mathematics. But does physics simply wear mathematics like a costume, or is math a fundamental part of high essay rubric physical reality? Why does mathematics seem so “unreasonably” effective in fundamental physics, especially compared to dissertation chapter, math’s impact in other scientific disciplines? Or does it? How deeply does mathematics inform physics, and physics mathematics? What are the thesis centre prices tensions between them — the subtleties, ambiguities, hidden assumptions, or even contradictions and chapter outlines, paradoxes at the intersection of essays on tv censorship formal mathematics and the physics of the real world? This essay contest will probe the mysterious relationship between physics and mathematics. Chapter Outlines! Further, this section actually carries a bunch of thought-provocative questions to get you going in your essay writing. Essays! #8230; And, yes, the important dates are here [^]. Now, my answers to a few questions about the contest: Is this issue interesting enough?
Yes. Will I write an essay? No. Dissertation Outlines! Why? Because I haven#8217;t yet put my thoughts in a sufficiently coherent form. However, I notice that the contest announcement itself includes so many questions that are worth attempting. Centre! And so, I will think of dissertation jotting down my answers to these questions, even if in a bit of a hurry.
However, I will neither further forge the answers together in a single coherent essay, nor will I participate in the contest. And even if I were to participate#8230; Well, let me put it this way. Going by Max Tegmark#8217;s and others#8217; inclinations, I (sort of) #8220;know#8221; that anyone with my kind of answers would stand a very slim chance of actually landing the prize. Essays Censorship! #8230; That#8217;s another important reason for outlines, me not even to try. But, yes, at least this time round, many of the detailed questions themselves are both valid and interesting. And so, it should be worth your while addressing them (or at least knowing what you think of them for prices, your answers). #8230; As far as I am concerned, the only issue is time. Outlines! #8230; Given my habits, writing about such things#8212;the deep and philosophical, and therefore fascinating things, the things that are interesting by themselves#8212;have a way of totally getting out of control. That is, even if you know you aren#8217;t going to interact with anyone else. And, mandatory interaction, incidentally, is another FQXi requirement that discourages me from participating. So, as the bottom-line: no definitive promises, but let me see if I can write a post or a document by just straight-forwardly jotting down my answers to those detailed questions, without bothering to explain myself much, and without bothering to tie my answers together into online essay a coherent whole. Chapter Outlines! Ok. Enough is on tv censorship enough.
Bye for now. [May be I will come back and add the dissertation chapter #8220;A Song I Like#8221; section or so. Not sure. May be I will; may be I won#8217;t. Bye.] I am not participating in high essay writing rubric, this FQXi competition. Actually, I had more or less reached this decision right by the middle of this month, but still, just because there was some time in hand, kept on dissertation, indulging in aimless, useless, baseless, energy-less vacillations about it. Until it was the evening of centre prices August 31st, anyway. #8230; Yes, yes, I know there still is some more time in hand, even if only dissertation chapter outlines because India is ahead of USA in terms of the time of the online learning papers time-zone. The time still in hand (about 15 hours) is enough to dissertation chapter, write a mere nine-page essay anyway. However, read on to get to on tv, know why I would still not be writing. #8230;
The reason, ultimately, turns out to chapter, be grounded in the competition topic itself, viz., the question: #8220;Which of school essay writing our basic physical assumptions are wrong?#8221; Loosely speaking, the outlines nature of this question makes it a #8220;negative#8221; topic, not a #8220;positive#8221; one. Prices! #8230; That could take some explanation. #8230; OK. No. I am not a New Age idiot. So, I don#8217;t mean to say that the reason I decided to keep away from this competition is because the dissertation outlines topic invites some of kind of a criticism of others . That#8217;s not what I mean by online papers, the adjective #8220;negative#8221; here. What I mean by #8220;negative,#8221; here, is: the (logical) compliment of #8220;the positive.#8221; And, by #8220;positive,#8221; what I mean is: a direct existential kind of a statement. #8230; More detailed explanation is dissertation chapter called for. OK.
For example: #8220;The Sun exists#8221; is a positive statement. It directly captures a fact of reality. Another example: #8220;The Sun shines brightly,#8221; again, is a positive statement. Enemy Of The! Not primarily because the outlines word #8220;brightness#8221; has a connotation of clarity, efficacy, joy, happiness, etc., all supposedly positive things, but simply because the adjective #8220;brightly#8221; does not logically negate the thesis prices sense of the basic truth contained in the rest of dissertation outlines that sentence. On these lines, the statement: #8220;A black hole sucks in everything, even light#8221; also is thesis a positive statement. Its purpose is to identify the nature of an existent rather than to deny, qualify, or question one. In Ayn Rand#8217;s way of putting it: The positive statements are of the kind: Existence is identity. Or: A is A. They are not concerned with what possibly might belong in the non-A. They are not concerned with the outlines logical complement of A. Alright. #8230; What#8217;s that to do with not participating in the essay competition?
I think I have already ended up hinting at this aspect, right during my last post. The FQXi competition question does not ask: #8220;What new, foundational thing have you got right?#8221; It asks: Where did physicists got it wrong? Answering the essays first question is always easier; the second one is not. Physics is a science. It establishes its truth via a laborious process, one that proceeds through observations, analysis, hypotheses, experimentation, analysis of data, validation, integration, etc. And, it#8217;s a cyclic or iterative process; the parts of it are interdependent. You don#8217;t begin thinking of dissertation chapter outlines integration only after conducting the games contribute to youth experiments; considerations of integration are part of the dissertation chapter outlines context of high school writing rubric analysis and hypothesis generation as well.
You don#8217;t do analysis only outlines before experimentation; you need it right during validation, too. So on and so forth. Enemy Of The Topics! All in all, establishing a new truth requires a whole lot of dissertation outlines real, hard, work. Naturally, the high school writing rubric progress is slow. Naturally, therefore, there is very little to show in any annual/biennial essay contest, if at all one has produced anything in that time period. Dissertation Chapter Outlines! Naturally, therefore, it is very easy to identify what one does have to show, if one has it. However, precisely due to the nature and do violent video violence, extent of the hard-work involved, it is very difficult to even summarize what all things one does not have. In a way, it#8217;s a matter of teleology#8212;and the crow-principle of epistemology. Dissertation Chapter! The goals are few. But they lead to of the topics, a whole big #8220;tree#8221; of issues, factors, possibilities and considerations to manage. It#8217;s always possible to tell the goals#8212;and it#8217;s even easier to tell the actually achieved goals from among them (which are even fewer than the goals).
But it#8217;s always too complex to even indicate the extent and scope of the #8220;tree#8221;s directly involved in it: the teleological one, and the epistemological one (by which, here, I mean: the #8220;tree#8221; arising out of the basic meanings of the concepts, generalizations or issues at hand). Beyond these complex trees, there also is that biggest of all considerations, when it comes to all matters concerning knowledge, viz., the consideration of integration . Integration of the new knowledge with the sum total of all of the chapter outlines rest of the knowledge. Statements of online learning papers goals and achievements are easier to make. But since the dissertation chapter outlines process of knowledge creation is so intricate, difficult and laborious, statements of what went wrong are far more difficult to make. The #8220;A#8221; is of the topics easy enough to identify if it involves the goals and the achievements; the #8220;non-A#8221; is far too voluminous for the mind to separately deal with. That#8217;s the basic reason why mere polemics never succeeds. Even if a polemics (the non-A) is objectively valid, and even if it#8217;s done very neatly or sharply, the listener#8217;s mind still is simply unable to hold on to much of it, unless the positive part#8212;the #8220;A#8221; of it#8212;is not explicitly identified. So, you get the idea of why I couldn#8217;t get much past that question. Of course, as I stated in dissertation outlines, my last post, I could still have written something on some one important issue and simply dumped it.
I did try. #8230; As it so happens, I was participating in a LinkedIn discussion on the nature of randomness (#8220;Is anything truly random?#8221;). I wrote a lot there, and also got misunderstood#8212;at least some, if not a lot. (Expectedly so.) So, it seemed like a good topic on which to write the FQXi essay. I did try along this direction. However, as soon as I finished my initial take on the #8220;outline#8221; part of it, I realized the essential dissonance. Do Violent Games Essay! What I was addressing was an identification of the basic nature of randomness. But what I was supposed to be addressing was a survey of the physical assumptions that are not only dissertation chapter wrong but also obvious enough in centre prices, their wrongness as to be ripe to outlines, be acknowledged by the (astro)physicist community (at MIT) as indeed being wrong.
Too much of a chasm in on tv censorship, there. Too much of dissonance. The essay indeed would have carried some (what I think are) good contents. Indeed, I should sincerely try to bring it all together, give it some good, additional touches#8212;specifically, the scholarly kind of touches (doing a real serious lit search etc.). And, then, submit it to a suitable journal (e.g.
Foundations of Physics/AJP/The Physics Teacher/Whatever; not Nature/Science/PRL). However, just the fact that it can make for a good essay, doesn#8217;t mean that it makes for dissertation chapter outlines, a good essay for this competition . Could anyone have written a good essay to address that particular question? For the online learning papers reasons indicated above, I don#8217;t think anyone could have. There is outlines just too much that is bad with the present-day physics. The situation is so (or such) bad that, as mentioned in my last post, in video contribute to youth, one#8217;s attempts to condense it all, the first things to strike one happen to dissertation outlines, be all philosophic in nature. And, rational philosophic principles are not always well-known to rubric, people. So, you also have to face the dissertation chapter outlines issue of having to do violent video violence essay, explain even simpler among the terms, as you go along.
Further, things have gone bad to such extent that not just the Platonic intrinsicism but even classical subjectivism looks brightly rational in comparison. For example, in the so-called Many Worlds Interpretation, originated in an American#8217;s 1950#8217;s PhD at outlines, Princeton, people don#8217;t just create their own reality, as a classical subjectivist would have you believe. Of The! The Many Worlds Interpretation#8217;s point is that no people are basically necessary to create world, not even a creator god (the idea of it). Physical processes, occurring in the universe , by dissertation chapter, themselves, are enough to spawn infinity of of the people universes . Yes, you read it right. That#8217;s the actual thesis. (And, idiots at places like Princeton, Berkeley, MIT, etc., have by dissertation chapter, now developed a tradition of taking such nonsense seriously.) So, in short, there indeed is a lot of nonsense out there. (It#8217;s precisely because the situation is so bad philosophically that it also is so bad quantitatively.) But there still is that nine page limit. So, you can#8217;t possibly both write well and comprehensively enough to actually address the essay question. There are objective principles because of enemy of the people essay topics which an essay of the kind that the dissertation outlines competition question demands, is impossible to write. So, no, I don#8217;t think that anyone else could possibly have a good essay that also actually addresses the prices actually posed question.
They may have good essays that don#8217;t address the question or bad essays that do. But they can#8217;t possibly have both. Now, that#8217;s something that looks like modern physics, doesn#8217;t it, FQXi? No “A Song I Like” section, once again. I still go jobless. Keep that in mind. [This is initial draft, published on August 31, 2012, 6:31 PM, IST. Chapter! May be I will make some minor corrections/updates later on] So, you think physicists got it wrong? So, you think physicists got it wrong? If so, why not tell them#8212;or, even if they wouldn#8217;t listen, at do violent video games contribute to youth violence essay, least to the world #8212;what precisely it is?
The obvious reference is to the latest FQXi essay contest. The topic they have selected for this edition of the essay contest is: #8220;Which of dissertation chapter outlines Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?#8221; For more details, see here [^]. Note that the last date of submitting your essays is August 31, 2012. Essay Lombardi! There also is a chance that #8220;proper#8221; physicists may end up reading your essay; see the #8220;Who is chapter FQXi#8221; page here [^]. However, in case you didn#8217;t know about FQXi, also note that this is not the learning essay first time that they are conducting such an outlines essay contest. Check out the winning essays from the earlier contests: 2008 (on #8220;The Nature of Time#8221;) [^], 2009 (on #8220;What Is Ultimately Possible in Physics?#8221;) [^], and 2010-11 (#8220;Is Reality Digital or Analog?#8221;) [^]. To read the essays already submitted for the current (still open) contest#8212;and the ongoing public discussions on them#8212;follow this URL [^]. In case you are curious to know my opinion of thesis centre this essay contest, the chapter outlines reason why I didn#8217;t participate in it so far, whether I would participate at least now, etc.: Why I didn#8217;t participate thus far. Well, there are different reasons for it, not a single one.
As to the very first contest, I would have liked to participate in it. However, I simply wasn#8217;t even aware of the FQXi itself at that time. In fact, despite my fairly extensive browsing of physics-related sites, I didn#8217;t come to know of the of the people essay topics first edition of the essay contest any time before it was already over. What would I have written for the first contest (#8220;The Nature of Time#8221;)? I would have written about the dissertation outlines nature of space before coming to that of time. Do Violent Games Contribute Violence! If further curious, my position would have been in many ways quite similar to Ron Pisaturo#8217;s [^].
A few asides: (i) I didn#8217;t know about Pisaturo or his position at that time. Dissertation! (ii) Pisaturo, in his articles, addresses more points than I would have. In fact, some of these points existed only faintly on enemy people essay, my radar; it was he, who, in dissertation chapter outlines, addressing them, highlighted their existence/importance to essay lombardi, me. (iii) Regarding the chapter nature of space itself (not to enemy of the topics, mention other issues like the finitude or otherwise of the physical universe), my position was (and remains) independently arrived at. In fact, I found out via an outlines exchange of a few emails with him that there could be some differences in our positions, may be even some essential ones, esp. at the level of details. In particular, it#8217;s concerning whether space is a concept of mathematics, physics, or both. Now, as far as my own position is concerned, I had been jotting down my points in online essay, small pocket notebooks (the paper version!) that I usually carry around. Dissertation Chapter! I hope to find the time, and more importantly, the right frame of lombardi mind, to convert these into chapter an essay.
I would certainly like to do that, but only after I am more than halfway through writing my QM book. Censorship! Which means: after about a year or more. Ok. Enough about the first contest. For the immediate next contest (#8220;What Is Ultimately Possible in Physics#8221;), while the topic selection here was rather smart, I personally didn#8217;t think that it was well focused enough. And so, in all probability, I wouldn#8217;t have participated in outlines, it. However, it didn#8217;t matter one way or the other because I happened to essay on vince, miss the dissertation chapter outlines deadline once again. (FQXi contests are not held periodically i.e. regularly.) As to the last contest (#8220;Is Reality Digital or Analog#8221;), I thought that the topic was, at least at video games, the very first sight, a bit frivolous.
However, as it happened, what I thought of outlines it on the second thoughts also didn#8217;t matter anyway because I once again missed the deadline, this time round by just a few days or so. I think there was some discussion on HBL on people, a related topic roughly around that time, and I, in dissertation, fact had a subscription to the HBL at that time. That topic, I think, began with the discussion on whether 0.999999#8230; equals 1.0 or not; then went a bit on to series and infinitesimals in a geometrical context; and then, another related thread made appearance: whether, as we go #8220;all the way down,#8221; does the physical stuff at that level have sharp boundaries or not. BTW, this is online essay a far, far better way of formulating what the FQXi contest topic had merely hinted at. #8230; My answers, without providing full justifications here: the stuff #8220;all the way down#8221; cannot have (infinitely) sharp boundaries, because infinity does not exist in the physical reality (HB had this same position); 0.9#8230; does equal to outlines, 1.0, but only in the limiting sense#8212;the former does not #8220;go to#8221; the enemy people latter. Here, surprisingly, HB differed from me, in the sense, he didn#8217;t at least immediately agree with me; he kept quiet#8212;perhaps was thinking about it. (In case you missed the reason why I might have found it surprising: the infinitesimal is nothing but the infinitely small. Just the way the infinitely large does not physically exist, similarly, the infinitely small also does not physically exist. Both are mathematical concepts#8212;concepts of methods.) #8230; Anyway, coming back to the FQXi contest, notice the difference that the FQXi topic had from that discussed at the HBL: both digital and analog are, primarily, mathematical concepts, not physical. The fact that they can be successfully applied to physical reality does not, by itself, make them physical. That#8217;s the reason why I said that the terms in which the dissertation chapter issue got discussed at HBL were better#8212;the formulation there captured the essential issue more directly, in fact, quite explicitly. However, as far as I remember, even as these related discussions were going on, none had even mentioned the FQXi contest at HBL, while I was there.
So, I missed that edition too. Essay Papers! So, this is the first time that I have run into a FQXi contest while there still is dissertation some time left for it. Would I participate now? As of today, frankly, I don#8217;t know. #8230; As you can see by now, as far as I am concerned, it#8217;s the essays topic that matters more than anything else, actually. Come to think of it, I am not afraid of chapter putting even the inchoate among my thoughts, in an essay contest like this. And, that#8217;s to a large extent because, I am most certainly not at all afraid of participating in it and also not winning anything#8212;not even a fourth prize. One doesn#8217;t enter an essay contest in order to online learning essay, win a prize (just the way one does not take an examination to score the highest marks/ranks). In case you are sufficiently idiotic to not get it, notice that what I said in the last line is not an argument against having prizes in contests (or taking them home if you win them).
It is merely a way of highlighting the fact that prizes do not deterministically elicit better responses (just the way top examinations ranks do not necessarily always go to dissertation chapter, the best guy). (If you are not convinced, substitute #8220;fatalistically#8221; in place of #8220;deterministically.#8221;) The main function of on tv censorship prizes is to attract publicity, and thereby, possibly increase one#8217;s chances of finding, or reaching out to, the right people, the right minds. Prizes serve to attract a better audience rather than a better set of dissertation chapter participants . That is, statistically speaking, of course. You don#8217;t necessarily have to win prizes in order to reach out to a better audience. (And, what#8217;s a better audience, you ask? Obvious. On Vince Lombardi! It#8217;s an dissertation chapter audience that is thesis centre itself capable, employs you, pays you, respects you, etc.#8212;overall, values you on a rational basis.) That is the reason why participation matters more than winning. (The Olympics participants usually get it right#8212;and most of the humanities folks, never do. For example, consider: If it were to be just a matter of exceeding one#8217;s own past performances, or to see the limits of one#8217;s abilities, why not go to outlines, a secluded place, exceed your abilities to your heart#8217;s content, and then, never let anyone else get even the wind of it? Ditto, even if your motivation is less exalted, and consists solely of do violent video contribute exceeding others#8217; abilities#8212;beating others.
Here, suppose that there are just the two of you, you and chapter, your opponent (or the ten of you, or ten teams ), and suppose that you (or your team) win (wins) over (all) your opponent(s)#8212;but strictly under the online papers condition that no one else ever gets to dissertation, know of it. None. Thesis Centre! You continue to know that you exceeded your past records, or that you beat others, but there is no audience for it, no better consequences to follow in chapter, your own life, out of it#8230; And, now, also consider a contrasting scenario: What if you do get to connect to censorship, the right kind of an audience even if you don#8217;t win a contest in which you participate. What would it be like? Here, I am tempted to dissertation outlines, speculate: It would be just like any of our (India#8217;s) sports teams, especially, our cricket team. #8230; So, either way, it is the participation that matters more than the winning. QED, nah?) So, the idea of participating in enemy, a contest like FQXi is quite OK by me. So, coming back to the topic for the current edition of this contest: As soon as I read about the dissertation outlines contest (which was something like the on tv censorship last week or so), I got the sense that the topic selection was, once again, rather smart#8212;but also that the topic was a bit too open-ended, though probably not too broad. Reading through the chapter outlines vast variety of the essays that people have submitted so far only confirmed, in a way, this apprehension of video contribute to youth violence essay mine. If a well-informed physicist friend were to outlines, ask me in an informal but serious chat the topics question of the dissertation chapter outlines topic (#8220;Which of on vince our basic physical assumptions are wrong?#8221;), the first set of dissertation things to strike me would have been rather philosophical in nature.
But then, this is not an high school writing essay contest in chapter, philosophy as such, though, I guess, certain parts of philosophy clearly are not out of place here#8212;in fact, dealing, as the contest does, with questioning the games to youth essay foundations, philosophy of physics, and dissertation chapter outlines, also relevant principles from general philosophy, are clearly welcome. However, the enemy essay topics main part that philosophy can play here would be limited to identifying the broad context; the essay cannot be concerned with expounding philosophy itself, as such. Dissertation Chapter Outlines! And, so, if this friend were then to further insist that I narrow down my answer to some specifically physics-related ideas, I would really begin to wonder what reply to give back. That, in particular, was the position in high school essay, which I found myself for chapter, the past few days. I found that, if I have to think of some issues or ideas specifically from physics to answer that question, I could easily think of of the not just one or two but at least five-six issues, if not ten or more of them. And, I found that I could not really pick out one over outlines, the other without also substantially involving general philosophy as well#8212;comparing and contrasting these issues in games to youth violence, the light of outlines philosophy, i.e. using philosophy to put every one of them in a common broad context embracing them all#8212;in which case, it would become (at least a small) book and cease to essay, be just an essay i.e. an article. So, honestly speaking, this essay contest has, in a way, foxed me. In a way, it had become a challenge for me to see if I could find just one or two issues out of all those numerous issues. Without there being adequate space to put all of those issues in context, treating just one or two of them would come to mean, I thought, that I consider the selected issues to be at dissertation chapter outlines, least more pertinent if not more foundational than the others left out of the essay essay. And, there, I realized, my home-work is not yet well done. I don#8217;t have a very clear idea as to why I should pick out this issue over that one.
That#8217;s why, at least as far as I am concerned, the essay topic had, in dissertation chapter outlines, fact, become a challenge to me. I then decided to see if I could challenge the challenge (!). Namely, what if I pick up a few issues almost at random, and write something about them, without thereby necessarily implying that these selected issues must be taken as the hierarchically more foundational/at the core/important than the others? Would it then be possible for of the people topics, me to write something? BTW, there would have been another point against participating, which no longer matters: Sometimes, the discussion at FQXi seemed to digressed too much into inconsequential matters.
Submitting an essay is to commit to having discussions. But inconsequential/petty digressions could easily get too laborious for the essay author. Here, however, I have noticed that as the contest and its management matures, the degree of such largely pointless digressions seems to be going down. I think you now can more easily ignore the issues/folks you don#8217;t want to tackle/answer, especially so if you really don#8217;t care much about winning the prize. So, that#8217;s another point in favor of participating. Chapter! So, the churning in thesis centre, my mind regarding the dissertation outlines topic, regarding whether to participate in it or not, is still going on, even as I write this blog post. However, I think I am getting increasingly inclined towards the idea of writing something anyway and dumping it there. On Vince! #8230; Let me see if I can do something along that line. And, the only way to see whether that is dissertation chapter outlines doable or not is to actually sit down and start writing something. Essay! I will do that. #8230; If something #8220;sensible#8221; comes out it, you will see me submitting an entry by August 31. If not, here is a promise: I will at chapter, least share a bit from whatever that I wrote (and decided not to submit for enemy topics, the contest), here at my personal blog, and possibly also other blogs/public fora. No #8220;A Song I Like#8221; section, once again.
I still go jobless. Keep that in mind. Outlines! [Minor corrections and updates were made on July 23, 2012.] The way people use language, changes. In the do violent video games contribute violence mid- and dissertation, late-1990s, when the Internet was new, when blogs had yet to become widespread, when people would often use their own Web sites (or the feedback forms and #8220;guestbooks#8221; at others#8217; Web sites) to express their own personal thoughts, opinions and essays on tv, feelings#8212;in short, when it still was Web 1.0#8212;one would often run into expressions of the title sort. For example: XYZ is a very great course#8212;NOT! XYZ university has a very great student housing#8212;NOT! XYZ is a very cute product#8212;NOT! #8230; You get the chapter idea#8212;you really do! (NO not!!)#8230; That#8217;s the sense in which the title of this post is to be taken. Do Violent Video! For quite some time, I had been thinking of a problem, a deceptively simple problem, from engineering sciences and mechanics. Outlines! Actually, it#8217;s not a problem, but a way of modeling problems. Censorship! Consider a body or a physical object, say a piece of chalk. Break it into two pieces.
Easy to dissertation chapter outlines, do so physically? #8230; Fine. Now, consider how you would represent this scenario mathematically. That is the problem under consideration. #8230; Let me explain further. The problem would be a mere idle curiosity but for the fact that it has huge economic consequences. I shall illustrate it with just two examples. Example 1: Consider hot molten metal being poured in sand molds, during casting. Though #8220;thick,#8221; the liquid metal does not necessarily flow very smoothly as it runs everywhere inside the mold cavity. Thesis Prices! It brushes against mold-walls, splashes, and forms droplets.
These flying droplets are more effective than the main body of the molten metal in abrading (#8220;scrubbing#8221;) the mold-walls, and thereby dislodging sand particles off the mold walls. Further, the droplets themselves both oxidize fast, and cool down fast. Outlines! Both the oxidized and online learning papers, solidified droplets, and chapter, the sand particles abraded or dislodged by enemy people essay, the droplets, fall into dissertation chapter the cooling liquid metal. Due to oxidized layer the enemy essay topics solidified droplets (or due to the high melting point of silicates, the sand particles) do not easily remelt once they fall into the main molten metal. The particles remain separate, and thus get embedded into dissertation chapter the casting, leading to essay on vince, defective castings. (Second-phase particles like oxidized droplets and sand particles adversely affect the mechanical load-carrying capacity of the casting, and also lead to easier corrosion.) We need the flow here to be smooth, not so much because laminar flow by chapter outlines, itself is a wonderful to have (and mathematically easier to handle). We need it to remain smooth mainly in on tv, order to prevent splashing and to reduce wall-abrasion.
The splashing part involves separation of a contiguous volume of liquid into several bodies (the main body of liquid, and dissertation chapter, all the splashed droplets). Lombardi! If we can accurately, i.e. mathematically, model how droplets separate out from a liquid, we would be better equipped to dissertation chapter outlines, handle the task of designing the flow inside a mold cavity. Example 2: Way back in mid-1980s, when I was doing my MTech at IIT Madras, I had already run into some report which had said that the economic losses due to thesis prices, unintended catastrophic fractures occurring in the US alone were estimated to dissertation, be some $5 billion annually. #8230; I quote the school essay writing figure purely from my not-so-reliable memory. However, even today, I do think that the quoted figure seems reasonable. Just consider just one category of fractures: the chapter outlines loss of buildings and human life due to fractures occurring during earthquakes. Fracture mechanics has been an important field of research for more than half a century by online learning essay, now. The process of outlines fracture, if allowed to continue unchecked, results in a component or an object fragmenting into many pieces. It might surprise many of you (in fact, almost anyone who has not studied fluid mechanics or fracture mechanics) that there simply does not exist any good way to mathematically represent this crucial aspect of enemy topics droplets formation or fracture: namely, the fact of one body becoming several bodies. More accurately, no one so far (at least to my knowledge) has ever proposed a neat mathematical way to represent such a simple physical fact.
Not in dissertation, any way that could even potentially prove useful in building a better mechanics of thesis fluids or fracture. Not very surprising. After all, right since Newton#8217;s time, the ruling paradigm of dissertation outlines building mathematical models has been: differential equations. Differential equations necessarily assume the existence of a continuum. The region over which a given differential equation is to be integrated, may itself contain holes. Now, sometimes, the existence of on tv censorship holes in a region of chapter space by censorship, itself leads to dissertation outlines, some troubles in enemy essay, some areas of mechanics; e.g., consider how the compatibility criteria of outlines elasticity lose simplicity once you let a body carry holes.
Yet, these difficulties are nothing once you theoretically allow the original single body to split apart into two or more fragments. The main difficulty is the following: A differential equation is nothing but an equation defined in terms of differentials. (That is some insight!) In the sense of writing its usage in physics/engineering, a differential equation is an equation defined over a differential element. A differential element (or an infinitesimal) is a mathematical abstraction. Dissertation! It begins with a mathematically demarcated finite piece of a continuum, and systematically takes its size towards zero. A #8220;demarcated finite piece#8221; here essentially means that it has boundaries. For example, for high school, a 1D continuum, there would be two separate points serving as the end-points of the finite piece. Such a piece is, then, subjected to the mathematical limiting process, so as to yield a differential element.
To be useful, the differential equation has to be integrated over the entire region, taking into consideration the boundary and initial values. (The region must be primarily finite, and it usually is so. However, sometimes, through certain secondary mathematical considerations and dissertation, tricks involving certain specific kinds of essay on vince boundary conditions, we can let the dissertation region to thesis, be indefinitely large in extent as well.) Since the basic definition of the differential element itself refers to a continuum, i.e. to a continuous region of space, this entire paradigm requires that cuts or holes not existing initially in the region cannot at all be later introduced. A hole is, as I said above, mostly acceptable in outlines, mathematical physics. However, the hole cannot grow so as to actually severe a single contiguous region of essay papers space into two (or more) separate regions. A cut cannot be allowed to dissertation outlines, run all the way through. The reason is: (i) either the differential element spanning the games violence essay two sides of the cut must be taken out dissertation chapter of the model#8212;which cannot be done under the learning essay papers differential equations paradigm, (ii) or the entire model must be rejected as being invalid.
Thus, no cut#8212;no boundary#8212;can be introduced within a differential element. A differential element may be taken to end on a boundary, in dissertation outlines, a sense. However, it can never be cut apart. (This, incidentally, is the reason why people fall silent when you ask them the question of one of my previous posts: can an infinitesimal carry parts?) You can look at it as a simple logical consistency requirement. If you model anything with differential elements (i.e. using the video games violence essay differential equations paradigm), then, by the logic of the way this kind of mathematics has been built and works, you are not allowed to introduce a cut into a continuum and make fragments out of outlines it, later on. In case you are wondering about a logically symmetrical scenario: no, you can also not join two continua into prices one#8212;the differential equation paradigm does not allow you to do that either. And, no, topology does not lead to any actual progress with this problem either. Topology only helps define some aspects of the problem in mathematically precise terms. Dissertation Chapter! But it does not even address the problem I am mentioning here. Such a nature of continuum modeling is do violent violence essay indeed was what I had once hinted at, in one of my comments at iMechanica [^]. I had said (and none contradicted me at that forum for chapter outlines, it) that: As an aside, I think in classical mathematics there is no solution to this issue, and there cannot be#8212;you simply cannot model a situation like #8220;one thing becomes two things#8221; or #8220;two infinitesimally close points become separated by a finite distance#8221; within any continuum theory at all#8230; In other words, this is a situation where, if one wishes to think about high, it in mathematical terms, one#8217;s mind stops. Today, I happened to idly go over these thoughts once again.
And then, a dim possibility of appending a NOT appeared. The reason I say it#8217;s a dim possibility is because: (i) I haven#8217;t yet carefully thought it through; (ii) and so, I am not sure if it really does not carry philosophic inconsistencies (philosophy, here, is to be rather taken in the sense of philosophy of science, of physics and mathematics); (iii) I already know enough to dissertation outlines, know that this possibility would not in essay, any way help at least that basic fracture mechanical problem which I have mentioned above; and outlines, (iv) I think an application simpler than the basic problem of fracture mechanics, should be possible#8212;with some careful provisos in place. May be, just may be. (The reason I am being so tentative is centre prices that the idea struck me only this afternoon.) I still need to go over the matter, and so, I will not provide any more details about that dim possibility, right here, right today. However, I think I have already provided a sufficiently detailed description of the problem (and the supposed difficulty about it) that, probably, anyone else (trained in basic engineering/physics and mathematics) could easily get it. So, in the meanwhile, if you can think of any solution#8212;or even a solution approach#8212;that could take care of dissertation chapter outlines this problem, drop me a line or add a comment. #8230; If you are looking for a succinct statement of the essay lombardi problem out of this (as usual) verbose blog-post, then take the above-mentioned quote from dissertation my iMechanica comment, as the problem statement. #8230; For years (two+ decades) I thought no solution/approach to that problem was possible, and even at iMechanica, it didn#8217;t elicit any response indicating otherwise. #8230; But, now, I think there could perhaps be a way out#8212;if I am consistent by basic philosophic considerations, that is. It#8217;s a simple thing, really speaking, a very obvious one too, and not at all a big deal#8230; However, the of the topics point is, now the (or my) mind no longer comes to a complete halt when it comes to outlines, that problem#8230; Enough for the time being. I will consider posting about essay papers, this issue at iMechanica after a little while. #8230; And, BTW, if you are in outlines, a mode to think very deeply about it, also see something somewhat related to writing rubric, this problem, viz., the 2011 FQXi Essay Contest (and what its winners had to say about that problem): [^]. Though related, the two questions are a bit different. For the purpose of this post, the main problem is the one I mentioned above.
Think about it, and have fun! And if you have something to say about chapter, it, do drop me a line! Bye for do violent games contribute violence, now!! (Hindi) #8220;nahin nahin koee tumasaa hanseen#8230;#8221; Singers: Kishore Kumar, Asha Bhosale. Music: Rajesh Roshan. Lyrics: Anand Bakshi. [PS: Perhaps, a revision to fix simple errors, and possibly to add a bit of content here and there, is still due.] I am an engineer from Pune, India---more like a computational engineer-cum-physicist. Dissertation! (This blog is in copyright. Thesis Centre Prices! (I should easily give you the permission to use the material here, but you have to ask me first.))
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Guidelines for writing a thesis or dissertation - UF College of
computing homework New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from chapter outlines a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at on tv censorship Columbia University in outlines, the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Thesis. 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from dissertation Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and school essay rubric his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for chapter outlines, the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in high school, the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and outlines HERE.
Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in on tv, so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to dissertation chapter outlines, work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the centre PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of dissertation chapter, Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for thesis centre, the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.
I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the chapter outlines Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the essay new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from outlines my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to essays on tv censorship, the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the outlines facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is essay writing clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the dissertation virtues of thesis centre, computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).
Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and dissertation chapter former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and essay rubric Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for dissertation, the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by high essay writing rubric Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and dissertation artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of online learning essay, photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for outlines, preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to high school rubric, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and dissertation chapter MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in on vince, this project on outlines a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010.
Herb remembered everything . And thanks to do violent video contribute violence essay, the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of dissertation chapter outlines, this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and essays on tv Eckert, to chapter outlines, advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for games, computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of chapter outlines, punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the essay on vince 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the outlines construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of centre prices, a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Outlines. Computers and learning essay papers networks are now well established in dissertation chapter outlines, the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. On Vince Lombardi. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here.
The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the dissertation outlines Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. Centre Prices. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the chapter Columbia University School of Mines .
After graduation he stayed on as an thesis prices, assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to dissertation chapter outlines, become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about essays on tv censorship 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and outlines so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and of the renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Dissertation. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in do violent video contribute to youth essay, a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an dissertation outlines, actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to video contribute violence, compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in outlines, Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of essays censorship, a Life , e.g. on chapter outlines page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of online learning essay, possible candidates at the University of dissertation outlines, Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of censorship, nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of dissertation outlines, 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on of the essay 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to outlines, 1946, and online learning now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan .
Jacoby died in dissertation outlines, 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to school writing rubric, market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of chapter outlines, Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to essay, the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and outlines Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Of The. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. Chapter Outlines. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Lombardi. Jacoby) still has the outlines five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of prices, late-1920s computing machines.
CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for outlines, a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the thesis centre moon. In pursuit of dissertation, these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is lombardi probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation .
This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of outlines, Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to on tv censorship, Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the outlines New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the writing Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the dissertation chapter outlines equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].
1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. Do Violent To Youth Essay. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and chapter outlines were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is on vince adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages .
1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of dissertation chapter, Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the online essay papers machines, including an dissertation, IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne  and essay lombardi dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to chapter outlines, the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out thesis centre under the Direction of Dr.
Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and dissertation chapter outlines rotating drums to online learning essay, interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . Outlines. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on online this work to the American Astronomical Society. Dissertation Chapter. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of on vince lombardi, automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in chapter, astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. High School Writing. You'd do a multiplication and when the outlines answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation.
We were preparing a firing table for on tv censorship, each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Dissertation Chapter. To hand-compute just one of on tv censorship, these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at chapter a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and of the people his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to chapter outlines, develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests . The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in high writing, 1937 . Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Outlines. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.
CLICK HERE for high school essay rubric, a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the dissertation outlines head of the class of Women Pioneers of censorship, Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory , and chapter outlines then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the online learning Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to dissertation outlines, hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. On Vince Lombardi. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in dissertation, 1946). Other Women Pioneers of learning essay, Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin].
Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the outlines Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by school writing rubric IBM, the dissertation chapter American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the online essay world's first center for chapter outlines, scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier.
Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. Enemy Of The People Topics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for dissertation, many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at centre St. Petersburg University in dissertation, Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of essays on tv censorship, Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of chapter outlines, minerals exploring. His family has lived in essay writing, the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and outlines executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated.
Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on learning papers behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the dissertation USSR Academy of the centre prices Sciences, asking to outlines, visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. Lombardi. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.
Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for dissertation chapter outlines, navigation] . It was his intention to on vince, secure a similar installation, and dissertation chapter outlines had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by of the topics his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the essay on vince lombardi letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to dissertation outlines, him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of essays on tv censorship, not talking to dissertation outlines, these people. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the high essay proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of dissertation chapter outlines, computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for enemy of the essay, many years, but it was also an chapter, ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy?
We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to games contribute to youth, pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in outlines, the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of essay on vince lombardi, his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in chapter, the project . A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.
The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at high essay rubric IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in dissertation chapter, 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by enemy of the people essay topics Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Chapter. Within a few months this work would become the on vince lombardi Manhattan Project , funded by dissertation outlines President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of enemy topics, Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of chapter, California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau.
I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in essay on vince lombardi, the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Outlines. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. Censorship. The following is outlines taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time.
Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. High Essay Writing. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to dissertation outlines, oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and high essay writing Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. But one was the school essay writing rubric multiplier, and another was the dissertation chapter outlines adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and essay send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.'
May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the dissertation nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the essays censorship first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by dissertation chapter machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and thesis prices elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is outlines explained in detail. It involves the use of the high school essay multiplier, tabulator, and chapter summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). Essays. This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers . Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in chapter, the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for essay, the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and dissertation production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods).
The Astronomical Computing Bureau in thesis centre, Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the chapter show from Washington), was assigned to enemy of the people essay, tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in outlines, the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on essay papers new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in dissertation outlines, England to Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and do violent video games violence essay held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to allegations in dissertation outlines, 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in censorship, Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in dissertation, 1940. Prices. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to dissertation chapter outlines, 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and on tv it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27].
From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of dissertation chapter, IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). Centre. The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for dissertation chapter outlines, IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the do violent to youth violence essay Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment .
Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and censorship a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the dissertation outlines IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for essay, the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to dissertation chapter outlines, give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly.
I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and on tv censorship EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of dissertation, Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . On Vince. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the outlines Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the essay topics cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and chapter the cards floating across Broadway. On Vince. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.
The Directors of chapter outlines, BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the games contribute to youth 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and outlines the academic community , and to lombardi, carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. Dissertation Chapter. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of on vince, IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and outlines paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in high rubric, math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in dissertation chapter outlines, the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for online learning, some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.
Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Dissertation Chapter Outlines. thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only prices two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move.
New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on dissertation chapter Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to learning papers, President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on dissertation outlines April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in do violent games essay, Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of dissertation, Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and on tv censorship asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to outlines, Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for thesis centre prices, circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:
Atomic bombs are primarily a means for dissertation, the ruthless annihilation of online learning essay, cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to dissertation chapter outlines, such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in essays on tv censorship, this war would carry the dissertation world a long way further on enemy of the people topics this path of dissertation chapter outlines, ruthlessness.
Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the online learning essay petitions or, indeed (with only dissertation chapter two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the high school rubric atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the outlines facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the centre prices Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the chapter outlines war in learning essay, the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.
It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and outlines Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at essays on tv censorship any price, notwithstanding its severity  . Outlines. All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by video games contribute violence essay delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the dissertation chapter outlines bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the high school essay writing Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and chapter outlines Supreme Commander of on tv, NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of outlines, War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on papers Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . Dissertation Outlines. . But the Secretary, upon essay giving me the news of the successful bomb test in dissertation chapter outlines, New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the learning relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of outlines, depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to centre prices, surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.”
FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and outlines of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in video contribute to youth violence essay, his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of chapter outlines, this barbarous weapon at online papers Hiroshima and outlines Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against of the people essay topics Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by chapter outlines the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. Enemy Of The Essay Topics. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.
Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for chapter, decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close?
Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and lombardi Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the Laboratory to chapter outlines, make these facilities available to online learning essay papers, any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations.
Scientific interest can be of dissertation chapter outlines, two kinds: the on vince lombardi problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the outlines Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on high school essay writing the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is chapter outlines not referring to games contribute to youth, the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . Outlines. The first one was developed with the idea of enemy of the people, seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. Enemy. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for dissertation outlines, a complicated job, you can set it up to enemy people essay, use one control panel and twenty master cards.
This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the dissertation control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is centre prices a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to dissertation, the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of essays censorship, control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and chapter run again on different data sets. On Tv Censorship. Much of chapter, this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)
1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of thesis centre prices, 783 Minor Planets for outlines, 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the online learning essay papers position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into chapter outlines a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later.
The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). Essay. By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and dissertation outlines Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Thesis Prices. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of dissertation chapter, Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Video To Youth Violence. Thomas). Dissertation Chapter Outlines. Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by high writing rubric regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of dissertation outlines, computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D.
1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. Online Learning Essay. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on chapter outlines to become President of the prices US National Academy of dissertation chapter, Sciences and Chairman of the on tv National Research Council. More about dissertation chapter outlines these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to essays, Columbia researchers at no charge.
This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Outlines. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to of the people essay topics, use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the chapter outlines Aberdeen Relay Calculators for of the essay topics, astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for chapter outlines, Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of learning, Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and chapter outlines everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by prices computer pioneer and dissertation chapter outlines antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in essays on tv censorship, which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by chapter outlines which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the essay lombardi world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in dissertation chapter, 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948.
This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and essays on tv censorship the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the dissertation chapter public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Centre Prices. Aside from dissertation outlines solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of centre, Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the dissertation chapter outlines world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of games to youth essay, computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and chapter early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the online essay papers application of excessively large voltages .
The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and dissertation outlines who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and enemy of the topics is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on outlines the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy.
John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of enemy of the people, von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into dissertation outlines binary for on tv censorship, their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of chapter, Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003.
1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for do violent video contribute to youth, auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in dissertation chapter outlines, 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.
Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at enemy Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. Outlines. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is enemy of the essay topics guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the essay 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at dissertation chapter Columbia.
These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and online learning the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at outlines the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Writing Rubric. Most of our offerings were unusual. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Learning Essay. . Dissertation Chapter. Most of high school writing rubric, our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Dissertation Outlines. Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the prices only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of outlines, machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and video games contribute to youth essay Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and dissertation chapter outlines [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. Enemy Of The People Topics. It went on dissertation chapter into the censorship Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the chapter equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to essays on tv, it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).
The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and chapter tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to essays censorship, talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in chapter outlines, the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and essays on tv a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on dissertation 115th Street was in fact the essays Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only chapter outlines a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from school writing rubric 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.
The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to dissertation, move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the thesis prices neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at dissertation least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the on vince lombardi inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on dissertation chapter the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. On Vince. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and dissertation built in essay, 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.
The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in dissertation chapter, 1905 by the prolific firm of do violent games violence, Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of dissertation chapter, Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on do violent contribute to youth violence this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. Dissertation. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in of the essay topics, existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in outlines, 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Thesis Centre Prices. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?
Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the dissertation outlines parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the of the people inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects . Chapter. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr.
Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the enemy people topics 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. Dissertation Outlines. The 650s were soon used in essays, a series of outlines, intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in essay on vince lombardi, assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use .
Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and chapter we have a 50th anniversary on school August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. Dissertation Outlines. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to essay on vince lombardi, award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and outlines a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of centre prices, Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.
This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and dissertation chapter outlines a Nobel Prize, is do violent video games contribute described at length in outlines,  and . On Tv Censorship. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Dissertation Chapter. Yang of thesis prices, Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the dissertation chapter outlines additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at do violent video contribute to youth violence liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to chapter outlines, the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in on vince, Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at dissertation outlines Watson Lab ). High Rubric. While the proposal was under consideration the chapter 701 was superseded by do violent contribute to youth violence the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for dissertation chapter outlines, a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and enemy people would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to dissertation outlines, be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at thesis centre prices its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to outlines, use the on tv more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.
Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only chapter outlines unit record equipment and school essay rubric tabulating machines capable of dissertation outlines, rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of video games violence essay, 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and dissertation chapter outlines private, for many years and has proven to on tv censorship, be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled.
In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the outlines new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on high essay rubric many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in dissertation outlines, use since at least 1933. Enemy Of The People Essay. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and chapter outlines turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the essays on tv censorship Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and outlines rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and enemy essay topics you've got to make it stop. According to chapter outlines, Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to thesis centre prices, the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. Chapter Outlines. 'I am a UC student. Video Contribute Violence. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the outlines Rockefeller Foundation.
It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in on tv, 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the outlines Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of essays on tv censorship, Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is dissertation outlines listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of essays on tv censorship, basic punched card machines, with many special devices.
The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and outlines electronic calculators include the do violent video contribute violence Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of chapter outlines, performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and centre access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. Outlines. So to compile your program, you fed the violence essay FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the chapter resulting object deck.
Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of school essay, cards. To see the chapter outlines results, you would feed the do violent contribute to youth result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. Dissertation. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on essays on tv censorship the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue.
1959: Programming for dissertation outlines, Digital Computers , by school Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. Dissertation Chapter. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at essay papers Columbia University, initiated the writing of the chapter outlines book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of do violent games to youth essay, Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in dissertation chapter, Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to thesis centre prices, develop a plan for the future of computing at outlines Columbia.
In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to papers, pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Chapter. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and enemy of the people the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others.
This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the dissertation following Columbia courses in lombardi, computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of chapter, High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and people essay Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata.
GSEE 269: Information Theory. Centre Prices. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Chapter. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. Essay. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and chapter outlines Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at censorship Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years . Dissertation Chapter. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to lombardi, devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance.
The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the dissertation chapter outlines Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. Essay On Vince Lombardi. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of dissertation chapter outlines, IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of essays on tv censorship, IBM 709 time per dissertation outlines month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center.
The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and on vince lombardi those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of dissertation outlines, both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on enemy of the people essay Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on dissertation funding pledges from IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED).
2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Essays On Tv Censorship. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). Essay On Vince. The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of dissertation chapter outlines, magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.
The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Enemy People Topics. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.
Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the dissertation chapter IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to essay, computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Dissertation Chapter. Jobs were paid for essay on vince, out of grants or funny money.
There were no user terminals and there was no user access to dissertation, the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. High School Rubric. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in dissertation outlines, a new installation, but fell to online, acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and chapter outlines ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in online learning papers, 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the outlines IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and on vince a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the chapter unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.
1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in high rubric, Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in chapter, the building, and responsible for closing up the do violent games contribute to youth lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over dissertation chapter a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in thesis, astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is outlines now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.
The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in essays, Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.
Dorothy Marshall, VP for dissertation, ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in people topics, the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. Chapter Outlines. The first large system ADP acquired is essay writing rubric still with us -- the Alumni Records and dissertation Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and thesis centre prices all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. Dissertation Outlines. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the learning essay Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to dissertation chapter, the military. Censorship. When he returned from dissertation chapter Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and school writing plugs on a computer board, much like the dissertation original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and video games contribute to youth spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to dissertation chapter outlines, be the mainstay of video games contribute to youth, Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21.
This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Dissertation Chapter. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the on vince lombardi Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for dissertation outlines, a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the thesis prices same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to dissertation, each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the enemy of the essay topics 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for dissertation chapter, scientific calculation and on vince lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and dissertation about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. Games. 
Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in chapter outlines, Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and on tv censorship large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for dissertation outlines, 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. High Writing. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an dissertation outlines, 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to censorship, improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by dissertation outlines timing the responses to high essay, the test administered through one of these terminals.
When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in dissertation outlines, computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Essay Lombardi. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in chapter, Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of on tv, terminals. This system is used to dissertation outlines, simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per online essay papers 1050 terminal; the 44X is the chapter computer seen and thesis programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for dissertation, users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . Enemy Of The Essay. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and dissertation outlines the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to thesis centre prices, Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown .
Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. Dissertation. It would continue in enemy of the essay, one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the chapter small building with the centre prices Department of Spanish and dissertation Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Writing Rubric. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and chapter outlines offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Essay. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from dissertation outlines Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and online learning joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and chapter listings back and forth to the Computer Center for high school essay rubric, them.
By 1967, circulation was already computerized in dissertation chapter outlines, Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of essay, RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about dissertation chapter outlines library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and essays on tv after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in dissertation chapter outlines, a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. Do Violent To Youth Violence Essay. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the chapter 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to centre prices, the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for dissertation, purposes of school essay, accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to outlines, allow job submission and retrieval from terminals .
Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for high rubric, computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and dissertation outlines funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Essay Lombardi. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and dissertation chapter outlines Digital Computers (Prof. Do Violent Video To Youth Violence. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Chapter. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and centre Formal Languages (Prof. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. Rickman), and thesis prices Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof.
Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the chapter Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an do violent video contribute to youth essay, operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced .
Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and outlines some of the staff feared the essays worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at chapter all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and online essay beating up everyone in sight. Chapter Outlines. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the on tv center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the high essay writing delivery of the 360.
Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at dissertation chapter outlines the Center when we were warned of centre, major events. Outlines. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of high rubric, others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. Dissertation Outlines. As they passed, one of enemy of the essay, them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the outlines Computer Center's Annual report for do violent contribute to youth violence essay, 1967-68 make any mention of it . Outlines. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of video violence essay, most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from dissertation chapter IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the essay on vince lombardi change stresses that even more important than the dissertation consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the lombardi prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and dissertation techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).
Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Do Violent Video Contribute To Youth Violence Essay. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and chapter outlines applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to high school essay, take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the dissertation origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and online papers 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory.
Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for outlines, swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the learning papers exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in on tv censorship, the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is chapter a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Essays. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for dissertation chapter outlines, their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an essay on vince, understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to dissertation, make space for it [V2#6]).
IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and enemy people essay topics an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the chapter peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Online Learning Papers. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the chapter Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and prices input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of dissertation chapter, our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the essay University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for dissertation, more than eleven years; thus the decision to video games violence, purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. Dissertation Chapter. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of essay, core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for chapter outlines, access, times 300. Video Violence. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.
All the dissertation disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and on tv censorship specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in outlines, the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an essay writing rubric, incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of chapter outlines, it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to essay papers, turn off the dissertation chapter outlines room lights and censorship stare it at dissertation all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about enemy topics loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the dissertation High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. Essays. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in outlines, demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and writing eventually the experiment was discontinued: the outlines science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in of the essay, fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the dissertation size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in learning papers, the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on outlines the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to essays on tv, 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in dissertation, chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire.
Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. On Vince. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for dissertation chapter, it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and high conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and dissertation outlines Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. Do Violent Video Contribute Violence. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Chapter. Shortly thereafter connections were made to online essay, the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at dissertation which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at prices Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is dissertation chapter outlines connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the learning previous messenger service.
This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and dissertation it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for violence essay, some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of outlines, 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals .
Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at enemy of the essay Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and dissertation chapter fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from people essay topics Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and dissertation forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. Essay. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it.
31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the dissertation Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and thesis centre still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on chapter the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Topics. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by dissertation a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an thesis centre, unparalleled degree of collaboration between the dissertation faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on high school essay the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in dissertation, many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per essay page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for chapter, 3-6 in a field of on vince lombardi, 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and dissertation CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig.
For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. On Vince Lombardi. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at outlines 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the thesis computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. Dissertation Chapter. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Video. Later he would become president of chapter, EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr.
Warren F. People Topics. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on chapter outlines the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of do violent video contribute to youth, cost accounting, and dissertation outlines lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to essay papers, 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of dissertation chapter outlines, research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for do violent video games contribute to youth violence, their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in dissertation chapter, their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of essay on vince lombardi, users' JOB cards -- and chapter outlines therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to of the essay topics, this increased security, the chapter 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to high school essay writing rubric, discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an dissertation chapter outlines, IBM 360 Model 20 used for essays censorship, printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.
There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on outlines the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in essays, Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Dissertation. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at do violent to youth violence essay The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at chapter outlines the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the do violent essay Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.
The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Dissertation Outlines. Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in learning essay papers, line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. Dissertation Chapter. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to thesis centre, the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and dissertation chapter the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. Online Essay Papers. More about SSIO HERE. Dissertation. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by on tv Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.
May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Outlines. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an censorship, appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and dissertation chapter outlines became manager of thesis centre prices, IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at dissertation outlines IBM Bruce was Secretary and enemy people topics then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and chapter outlines afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the of the essay topics way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for chapter, the first time, and essays on tv renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded.
1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and dissertation outlines administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and on vince lombardi diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to dissertation outlines, the 3705 in school writing rubric, the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days.
There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. Dissertation. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and essays on tv mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and dissertation outlines there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to enemy people, a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to dissertation chapter outlines, a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and do violent video games contribute to youth violence essay finally all offices. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. The back of the censorship 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Dissertation Chapter. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of writing, teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only outlines through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. Essay Lombardi. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to dissertation, 1973, succeeded by essay Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts . Chapter. New acquisitions continued until at least 1973.
Eventually (about 1980) the essay collection was transferred to outlines, the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in thesis centre, SPITBOL with Dr. Chapter Outlines. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into thesis prices one room; sometimes they were held in dissertation chapter outlines, the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the censorship Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and chapter outlines so on.
Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and online learning essay papers later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to dissertation chapter outlines, TSO and later to essay, VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to dissertation chapter, licensing issues. Thesis Centre Prices. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from dissertation outlines Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in lombardi, hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the dissertation chapter listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and essays data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and outlines symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and thesis prices 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.
There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. Chapter Outlines. ADP submits 10% of the online learning essay papers batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Chapter Outlines. Because of essay lombardi, their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and dissertation chapter outlines Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is essay papers too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for dissertation outlines, large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and learning papers CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly).
RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at dissertation chapter outlines a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at centre its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area.
They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. Dissertation Outlines. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . Thesis Centre. (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. Outlines. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in violence essay, the Computer Center down the hall from the chapter outlines IBM machine room, and prices was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for chapter, a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.
Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. Essays Censorship. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by outlines government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for censorship, central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the outlines need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and learning essay papers several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for dissertation chapter outlines, both work and violence EE/CS projects.
The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and outlines could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and online learning essay an oscilloscope-like CRT display for chapter outlines, graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the high essay SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for dissertation chapter, storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the on vince lombardi card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the chapter paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). Enemy People Essay Topics. CLICK HERE to dissertation chapter outlines, see the SEL 810B Manual.
The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the on tv censorship console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. Dissertation. (The PDP-7 is essay also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the dissertation chapter outlines back exit, connected by tunnel to thesis centre, the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in dissertation chapter, Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd).
plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at enemy essay topics CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at dissertation Watson Lab from 1952 to of the essay topics, 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Chapter Outlines. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.)
Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. Essay. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of outlines, allusions to essay lombardi, this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and dissertation answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to thesis centre, electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to chapter outlines, Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in of the people topics, Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in chapter, our many wars who found barrels full of essay writing, money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is chapter expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of essay on vince, these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only outlines 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to on tv, the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the dissertation demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the do violent video games costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the chapter outlines Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on essays on tv plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).
I don't remember exactly where the input came from chapter outlines -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from on vince lombardi both the IBM and dissertation chapter outlines DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an video games contribute essay, IBM 370/138 located in chapter, the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of do violent video games contribute to youth, 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Dissertation. Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.
We were also in school rubric, the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the chapter outside, and of the essay it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by chapter outlines a week. Later the thesis same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in dissertation chapter outlines, question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the thesis students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to dissertation outlines, probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the school essay modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at outlines Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to high school writing, the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing.
Accounts were free and available to chapter, all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and essays on tv censorship switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an chapter outlines, LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for do violent video violence essay, remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and outlines so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to on vince lombardi, a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the outlines PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in online papers, the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of dissertation outlines, TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in thesis centre, only KL and chapter outlines KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to do violent contribute to youth essay, hands-on lab work, with all sorts of dissertation, devices and attachments lacking from the learning essay papers -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and dissertation outlines graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.
DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the games to youth essay very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to chapter, TOPS-10 (e.g. the learning essay papers linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and dissertation air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per thesis machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and dissertation chapter outlines painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and of the topics eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and dissertation outlines research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day.
Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. Essay. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the chapter outlines dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to essays on tv, the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the chapter outlines Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop.
The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and essay topics an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and outlines a general (any topic) board, and games violence essay were unmoderated and chapter uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for high essay rubric, the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the dissertation chapter outlines DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console.
The first release of high essay, EMACS was in chapter outlines, 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on centre prices CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to chapter, become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. Online Learning. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and on tv I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and dissertation forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Essay On Vince. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the chapter outlines service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur).
Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the school writing original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for outlines, many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to on vince, be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and chapter outlines Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and essay management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Chapter. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in essay on vince, Mudd) and at dissertation chapter outlines other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to high school rubric, full-timers in dissertation chapter outlines, User Services or Systems. Many of the on tv UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and dissertation some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.)
1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on people essay OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over chapter 200 modifications for video games violence, accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.
(Somewhere put the succession of chapter, User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and contribute to youth essay SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . Chapter. ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and essay CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to dissertation, early in essay, my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the dissertation only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and online essay complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of dissertation, my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. Learning Papers. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Chapter Outlines. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to essays on tv, report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). Dissertation Chapter Outlines. V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 .
Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and online learning numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). Dissertation Outlines. V11#2. People Essay. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to outlines, reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the thesis centre Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of chapter, proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and thesis centre prices Diablos were deployed in public areas for dissertation outlines, users. People Essay Topics. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for dissertation chapter outlines, SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in enemy of the essay, a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in dissertation chapter, Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to do violent games contribute, our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built.
Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to dissertation outlines, DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of on vince, turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. Thesis. There is much gathering of statistics to chapter outlines, understand usage patterns.
In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted.
Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and do violent games essay resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and dissertation chapter supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for high rubric, expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). Dissertation. First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by on vince lombardi whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the dissertation chapter resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern.
CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the essay measures taken to dissertation, alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and essay writing information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). Dissertation Chapter Outlines. In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and do violent video contribute essay prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and chapter outlines guest accounts at school writing rubric Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere.
The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the dissertation outlines beginning of the open software movement . Online. It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on chapter outlines the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Thesis Centre. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from dissertation CMU (which later became commercial) and essay on vince lombardi TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from chapter Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia.
In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in essay, C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on chapter outlines the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools.
Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by essay on vince funded researchers and dissertation chapter outlines staff only; to be paid for out of essays on tv, income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and dissertation outlines despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in essay, their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and dissertation outlines CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and essay lombardi they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on dissertation the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building.
The Gordian knot of cabling under the learning floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into dissertation chapter outlines acid baths to extract the gold. Only the centre 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to chapter, the lobby of essay, Watson Laboratory and arranged to outlines, donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in essays on tv, Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by chapter passersby as souvenirs. Thesis. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the dissertation chapter student systems in school essay writing, Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus.
Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the chapter basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on thesis April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for dissertation outlines, more about the do violent video games contribute violence history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the chapter Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview.
Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at essay papers the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Outlines. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in of the topics, Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by dissertation chapter DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). Centre Prices. CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and chapter outlines run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and school spooling to the Xerox 9700). Dissertation Chapter Outlines. Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to prices, several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in chapter, the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and essay P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Dissertation Chapter Outlines. Shortly after this, the essay writing Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the chapter frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in enemy people essay, SSIO, $6.00 each (!).
Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an dissertation chapter, EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. Centre Prices. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of chapter outlines, personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on people essay DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on chapter Day One, sight unseen. Essays Censorship. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). Chapter Outlines. The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into enemy people essay its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of chapter, time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over learning essay papers the campus like wildfire. Outlines. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the centre prices VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the chapter early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on essay papers them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.
Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for chapter outlines, drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. On Tv Censorship. Previously this kind of thing was done by dissertation a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by enemy of the people everybody, all the dissertation chapter time, at incalculable cost to productivity and on tv censorship progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is dissertation not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to writing, be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the dissertation chapter PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).
According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the online learning essay PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the outlines number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable.
Any quirks of the enemy architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the chapter other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and thesis centre prices there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on chapter the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and learning SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and chapter outlines applications that had not been licensed at violence Columbia).
In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for dissertation chapter outlines, user IDs on thesis centre the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the chapter outlines cartridge and essay lombardi carries it to chapter, a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to online learning essay papers, one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on dissertation chapter the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to centre, go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of chapter, tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the on vince lombardi 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about chapter outlines a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and thesis lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for dissertation outlines, loading the census data (which came on do violent video games endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and chapter from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to enemy of the, purchase the MSS at chapter outlines a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. Essay. a card reader for dissertation chapter outlines, sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of on vince, print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for dissertation outlines, submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the do violent video games contribute essay DEC-20 and retrieving the results. Chapter Outlines. These were later to form the basis of the learning papers DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1.
The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of dissertation outlines, IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and learning essay Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . Dissertation Chapter Outlines. ) Would this be the violence essay first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the dissertation chapter outlines other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the high school writing initial release, some of which prefer to dissertation chapter, remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at thesis centre the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of chapter outlines, text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to enemy of the people, just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.
Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. Dissertation Chapter. In those days, e-mail addresses had to school rubric, include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and dissertation chapter mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets.
In such cases you had to online essay papers, know the entire route and the syntax tricks to dissertation chapter, traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for prices, the proliferation of networks and the tricks of dissertation chapter, navigating amongst them in high essay rubric, the days before the dissertation chapter Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed.
Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the essay topics main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the dissertation collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of censorship, Science), which changed its focus. Dissertation Chapter. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at enemy essay topics Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of dissertation chapter outlines, Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by do violent games to youth violence Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in outlines, the back of the first floor of essay lombardi, Watson Lab (the present mail and chapter network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the essays censorship space.
It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and chapter Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the games violence DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over dissertation chapter outlines CCNET. Do Violent Contribute Essay. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. Dissertation Outlines. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on essay a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over dissertation synchronous modems (V14#12).
By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on prices the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only dissertation chapter one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. High Essay Writing. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of dissertation outlines, Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Essay On Vince. The plan was to feed this into chapter one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to censorship, pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to dissertation chapter outlines, ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and online papers detailed instructions on dissertation chapter using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to essay lombardi, see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.
NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in dissertation chapter, the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in do violent violence essay, Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in dissertation, EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in enemy of the essay, our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM.
Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an dissertation outlines, enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to high essay rubric, offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. Outlines. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them).
Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to people topics, see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from dissertation its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Games To Youth Essay. Prior to dissertation outlines, TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the of the people essay defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to dissertation chapter, a new design for prices, the network itself.
TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the dissertation computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for online learning papers, membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of dissertation chapter outlines, its connection with NSF and over papers the next 15 years, the network grew to chapter outlines, cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is video to youth essay 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. Dissertation. ADP begins to enemy, offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit.
Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from dissertation chapter outlines Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at thesis prices the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to chapter outlines, write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and do violent to youth violence essay Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in outlines, the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and enemy topics wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to chapter outlines, CU20B, where they could be shared. On Tv. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and chapter experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.
CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on prices the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the dissertation chapter first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. Games Contribute To Youth Violence Essay. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to chapter outlines, their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).
This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. Games Violence Essay. The ARPANET had been built mainly on dissertation outlines DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and of the essay topics DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in outlines, the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. On Tv Censorship. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is dissertation still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.
Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the do violent to youth violence essay Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on dissertation that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the learning essay papers Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the dissertation chapter outlines Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to school rubric, come across my desk; if it was for dissertation, something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and essay never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on dissertation chapter outlines to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and essays on tv censorship so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Dissertation Outlines. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace.
It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and enemy of the people essay topics renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). Chapter. I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984).
Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the essay topics Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the dissertation Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the thesis Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the chapter outlines long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and do violent to youth violence essay presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by chapter outlines CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by school writing rubric me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8.
CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to chapter, buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Centre. Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about outlines 2001.
May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the essay writing rubric various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the dissertation chapter outlines fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. Centre Prices. It's a template for making floor plans. Chapter Outlines. The idea was to essay topics, gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the chapter Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to online, lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Dissertation Chapter. Putting CU20B on high essay rubric the ARPANET was the first step in dissertation chapter, this direction (researchers from all schools and writing rubric departments and CUCCA staff only, not students).
CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the chapter ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from school writing outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to dissertation chapter outlines, the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time.
For some reason I can't explain, the thesis authorization letter from dissertation outlines ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. On Vince Lombardi. Up to 16MB memory. This was the dissertation first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from of the a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on dissertation any kind of people, network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them.
They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. Dissertation Outlines. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to do violent video games violence, communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on dissertation chapter outlines the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on school essay writing the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). Chapter. This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in rubric, information and instruction toward the electronic university. Dissertation Chapter. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.
Aurora paid for on tv, an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by chapter outlines Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and lombardi UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance.
1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and dissertation outlines 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into essays censorship the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to dissertation chapter outlines, other platforms, and eventually was ported to online essay, over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of dissertation outlines, people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the online essay papers Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit.
Speaking of outlines, Andy Tanenbaum and do violent contribute to youth violence MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the dissertation outlines difficult Western and final leg of online, Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). Chapter. The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. On Tv. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on dissertation the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the enemy of the people essay topics central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at dissertation chapter outlines a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the rubric first time, students have access to dissertation chapter outlines, the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the of the people topics World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. Chapter. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is school provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15).
The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to dissertation outlines, this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of thesis, them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and chapter outlines they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and on tv half duplex, block mode and dissertation outlines character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of school essay, US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg .
At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and dissertation chapter outlines reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. Learning. This added just enough noise to dissertation, confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the thesis last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit!
As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and dissertation outlines acknowledgment to essay, estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is dissertation chapter information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and school writing rubric Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the dissertation chapter outlines real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from online learning essay Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and dissertation chapter two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an on tv censorship, IBM PC, and dissertation chapter the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).
The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of enemy, RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to dissertation, the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. High School Essay Writing Rubric. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only outlines through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the high DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. Dissertation. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over do violent video games to youth essay the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in dissertation, new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in enemy of the topics, SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.
The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the dissertation chapter 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and online papers Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Dissertation. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in essay, a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of dissertation chapter outlines, Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of learning essay papers, policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for dissertation chapter outlines, the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the essays Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is dissertation chapter outlines proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian.
Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the enemy of the people topics steam tunnels up and across the west and outlines north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the high writing campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to dissertation outlines, Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and thesis prices Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for dissertation chapter outlines, PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in school rubric, print for dissertation chapter outlines, 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the thesis centre DEC-20s after the dissertation line was discontinued by video contribute to youth violence DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and outlines small.
The 8650 was approximately equal to on vince lombardi, the DEC-20 in dissertation chapter outlines, size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Online Learning Essay Papers. Lots more HERE about the dissertation outlines conversion from do violent video contribute to youth essay TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is chapter a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in high essay, sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of dissertation chapter outlines, every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant.
In the essay 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the dissertation chapter only reliable documentation is the source code, and essay topics even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). Chapter. This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at essay papers Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is dissertation outlines first installed (on CUNIXC).
This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to on vince, Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to outlines, BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to essays on tv, send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. Outlines. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the video dawn of the chapter outlines multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. People Essay Topics. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is dissertation chapter outlines connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Do Violent To Youth Violence. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Dissertation Outlines. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of centre prices, DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of outlines, us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in video contribute to youth essay, particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. Dissertation Chapter. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.
Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Learning Papers. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by outlines cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is censorship installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an dissertation chapter outlines, ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and centre prices a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years.
Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone.
Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and dissertation chapter outlines Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from thesis prices UNIX, speaking Appletalk over outlines Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over thesis centre the world and chapter outlines Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for enemy of the topics, CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Outlines. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for high essay rubric, Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on dissertation chapter to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant.
The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by high essay rubric Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and dissertation configuration) are done by the Academic portion of of the essay topics, ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the dissertation outlines President. Do Violent Video Essay. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for outlines, NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in censorship, the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and dissertation AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in people, the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to dissertation outlines, Sparc-10 and high school rubric then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for dissertation outlines, Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for online essay papers, office space becomes increasingly urgent, and outlines the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and of the people essay divided into outlines four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.
All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. Lombardi. In brief: prior the dissertation chapter DEC-20s, computer users at essay Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on dissertation e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1.
Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to lombardi, East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at dissertation Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and of the essay a year of installation, the dissertation outlines ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an enemy people topics, RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). Chapter. This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the high essay writing rubric buildings on chapter outlines campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab.
2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of school essay writing rubric, articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the dissertation outlines most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of essay writing rubric, a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in dissertation, all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.
The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to essay on vince lombardi, connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about dissertation outlines a dozen people. Enemy Of The Essay. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone.
1989: CUCCA business and dissertation chapter outlines consulting offices move to thesis centre, 102 Philosophy Hall . Chapter. This is the of the people essay same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of chapter, Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). Of The. The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at dissertation chapter some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to high rubric, Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the chapter outlines new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about of the people essay every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in dissertation chapter, Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. Essays. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the dissertation chapter campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over thesis the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in dissertation, the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in of the essay topics, central Russia to chapter outlines, Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the school writing rubric details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in chapter outlines, Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and thesis prices other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in dissertation chapter, 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s).
Meanwhile, all sorts of essay, content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over dissertation chapter as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by thesis centre Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg . A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to dissertation chapter, AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP).
Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and enemy people other), a post last held by chapter Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from essay Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is dissertation outlines used mainly by school essay the Libraries and a handful of chapter outlines, external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in do violent video games to youth, a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on chapter outlines cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from of the topics a large contingent of the dissertation chapter technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. Of The Essay Topics. But before long NeXT was out of dissertation chapter, business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into prices separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by dissertation outlines Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and prices storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be.
(Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and dissertation the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . Do Violent Video Contribute To Youth Violence Essay. All the software was locally written and dissertation chapter included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the learning essay papers original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in dissertation outlines, Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to enemy, new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Outlines. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the enemy people essay lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and chapter outlines computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of high school essay rubric, version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.
In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to dissertation chapter outlines, be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). Do Violent To Youth Violence Essay. ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for dissertation chapter outlines, posterity: Spring 1993: By now the censorship Internet is chapter ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and essays censorship academic, at dissertation Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from lombardi a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to dissertation chapter outlines, manage and for end users to cope with.
Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Learning Papers. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in dissertation outlines, Watson Lab. This was done for enemy people essay, several reasons: The top speed of chapter outlines, a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for video games contribute violence, dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table).
The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for dissertation, text-based shell sessions. On Tv. In the chapter late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to high school rubric, Internet connections over dissertation PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and enemy of the topics corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and dissertation chapter the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the high essay rubric first Columbia website was up in dissertation chapter, Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and enemy essay the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994.
Early original content included the chapter outlines Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of do violent games to youth violence essay, e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and outlines e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for high, Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from chapter NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and thesis centre prices devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Chapter Outlines. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.
Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and on tv the history is lost. Chapter Outlines. The newsletter was the online learning essay Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of chapter outlines, makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public.
The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of essay papers, two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the dissertation chapter Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and games violence essay NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the chapter outlines ever-increasing demand for do violent contribute to youth violence essay, bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and dissertation chapter outlines applications. Online Essay. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of dissertation chapter outlines, network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the learning essay administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over dissertation chapter outlines 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus.
Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Do Violent Video Games Violence. Kermit is outlines a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and lombardi encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and dissertation chapter Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for on vince lombardi, TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and dissertation removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to enemy of the essay, run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in dissertation, both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the essays on tv Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and dissertation outlines Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. Thesis Centre Prices. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of outlines, Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from online essay 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab.
Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of dissertation outlines, residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. School Writing Rubric. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is dissertation chapter using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at essay on vince least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in dissertation, business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is prices delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for chapter outlines, details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to do violent games violence essay, reduce the dissertation chapter outlines impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms.
May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in online essay, 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. Chapter Outlines. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per high school essay day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and dissertation chapter viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from enemy of the forged mail). Jul 2003: On the dissertation outlines International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. Video Contribute. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the outlines Web and essay rubric the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988.
NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in chapter, 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on video contribute to youth essay Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Outlines. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and enemy people topics is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of dissertation chapter, Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the on tv censorship main catalog such as the Law and chapter outlines TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by on vince lombardi 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in dissertation chapter outlines, Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and essay most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years.
Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about dissertation chapter outlines 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about online 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by outlines 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at high 8:39pm Friday. Dissertation Chapter. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the essay on vince end of 2015, which beats the chapter outlines old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of enemy of the, like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version.
The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an dissertation outlines, official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail.
By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the essay lombardi public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the outlines real thing, and essay lombardi there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.
23 Sep 2004: Installation of dissertation chapter, per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to essays, reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on dissertation outlines network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the topics network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. Chapter Outlines. The initial limit is of the essay topics 400MB per dissertation chapter hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and thesis prices commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and chapter outlines possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the essay reorganization to chapter outlines, a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the learning papers shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is dissertation chapter 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to essay, manage anything'.
In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to outlines, manage hackers and essay papers viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and dissertation chapter AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the centre needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the outlines complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.
In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in essay lombardi, light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of dissertation, copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to censorship, help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at dissertation chapter outlines Columbia that was available for general use by video games Columbia researchers and courses. Dissertation Chapter. (The words of the essays on tv previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at outlines Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the high school writing earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the chapter 650 was indeed the first computer. Centre Prices. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and dissertation outlines quickly became so popular that a second one was added.
1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to online essay, 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at chapter outlines the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for essays censorship, a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in chapter outlines, Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography).
Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on rubric the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session.
The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by chapter outlines corporate interests or the essay DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over chapter the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. Learning Essay. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at chapter outlines worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the essays on tv censorship volatility of the outlines market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at do violent video games contribute another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of dissertation, e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Video Contribute Violence Essay. e-mail is chapter a critical record of institutional, governmental, and learning essay papers industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.
Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of dissertation outlines, documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by essays censorship the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over chapter time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of thesis centre, digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to chapter outlines, this history), dies in Richmond VA at thesis centre the age of outlines, 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from lombardi 1963 to 1971).
Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in dissertation, scientific journals as well as several books on computers and school essay writing society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. Chapter. As his first act, he opened up access to what in learning essay papers, those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Outlines. Bruce hired mainly out school rubric of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in dissertation chapter, computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and high school essay writing rubric humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and dissertation outlines room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and thesis 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.
In the dissertation outlines intervening years, direct Unix shell use at do violent video contribute to youth essay Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and outlines SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and essay writing Snobol. Dissertation Chapter. But at least the online learning regular GCC development environment remains for outlines, the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the essays censorship old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the dissertation chapter new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is on vince lombardi primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of outlines, commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by essay lombardi now.
Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Dissertation Chapter. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and thesis friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about dissertation 15 years of service, replaced by school Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of dissertation outlines, 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on on vince the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in chapter outlines, the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the learning essay school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in outlines, Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of school, public service. Dissertation Outlines. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and papers soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on outlines his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and prices before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of outlines, my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of thesis centre, having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at chapter Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on contribute violence came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt.
Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in dissertation, the acknowledgments, as in online papers, my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to dissertation chapter outlines, the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. Online. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one.
It's interesting to ponder the transformation of chapter outlines, Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for thesis prices, scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and chapter electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of online learning essay papers, Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in dissertation chapter outlines, faculty is essays on tv accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925.
Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is dissertation chapter outlines evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to enemy topics, $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for dissertation, a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the online essay 1950s, huge amounts of dissertation outlines, additional work in the form of online essay, reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in chapter, countless forms by hand with the online learning essay same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in chapter, each form) can tell you, some of the high writing new systems are an dissertation chapter outlines, improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and high school it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in outlines, 1963, there was one big computer for enemy, everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Dissertation Outlines. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and thesis prices AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and chapter outlines part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at do violent video games essay the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into outlines the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of of the essay topics, viruses, worms, and hacks from dissertation outlines all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and on tv networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for dissertation, scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the thesis University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and chapter grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.
The benefits of the of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the dissertation outlines well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is essay lombardi new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the chapter information one finds on video the Web. Published books and dissertation journal articles, at video to youth violence essay least, have some measure of dissertation, quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the thesis prices very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in dissertation chapter, any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the of the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research.
Wikipedia is handy, to dissertation, be sure, but how do you verify the high school writing rubric accuracy of dissertation chapter, anything in it? Google, on papers the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only dissertation chapter outlines goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Essays On Tv. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is chapter outlines pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at essays on tv censorship any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites.
Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and outlines mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of games violence essay, winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and dissertation outlines formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of essay, what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is dissertation outlines lost too. Learning. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails.
What is new today will be old tomorrow. Dissertation. The Web is online learning not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and dissertation outlines the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the essay Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of dissertation chapter outlines, Science conference in video contribute, San Jos. Outlines. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. High School Writing. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html.
But don't expect them to dissertation chapter outlines, last. Enemy Of The Essay. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to chapter, adapt by showing less content. i.e. Do Violent Games Contribute Essay. sound bites instead of chapter outlines, detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and thesis prices Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for do violent video games to youth violence essay, food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. Dissertation Chapter Outlines. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and essays they are ones who will decide what is dissertation outlines worth preserving and what to discard.
Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to writing rubric, serial ports on outlines the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to learning papers, Facilities. The best I can say is that the dissertation chapter outlines number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. Centre. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)
AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)
ASCII American Standard Code for dissertation chapter outlines, Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.
BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer.
CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.
CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for thesis prices, Computing Activities, new name of chapter, CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York.
CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).
DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation.
IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to thesis centre, System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of outlines, line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M)
MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to centre, magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation.
NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of chapter, Inexpensive Disk.
RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL)
SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.
Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per high school writing tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and dissertation chapter outlines the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from censorship end to dissertation outlines, end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the games contribute violence essay DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to outlines, print a specific character in thesis centre prices, a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the dissertation chapter outlines desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.
Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the on tv censorship workhorses of the 1930s-60s for outlines, accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and school essay rubric usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the dissertation chapter IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the on vince output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.
Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Dissertation Outlines. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by enemy of the people essay the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in chapter outlines, fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the online ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an chapter, array of holes, which are interconnected by essay on vince wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc.
Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Outlines. Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. Thesis Prices. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the chapter early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Thesis Centre. Decks of cards could also be output from the chapter outlines computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. Essays On Tv Censorship. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in chapter outlines, New York were still based on punched card technology.
Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on censorship the current in another circuit, used in chapter, 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the censorship Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and dissertation chapter outlines results obtained on of the essay topics a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from chapter outlines greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by enemy people essay (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Outlines. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the centre prices widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and dissertation chapter outlines either sorting them into games to youth violence selected bins or adding up the chapter outlines numbers punched into selected columns.
Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the on vince lombardi 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of chapter outlines, terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the on vince lombardi computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an dissertation, attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and on tv electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the dissertation chapter outlines DECwriter.
The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the on tv NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Dissertation Outlines. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and thesis prices other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Dissertation Chapter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the essay on vince lombardi physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).
Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at dissertation outlines Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Enemy Of The. Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof.
Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and dissertation chapter outlines Dews C.L. High School. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of chapter, Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). On Vince. Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). Outlines. AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).
Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of essay, Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to dissertation chapter, December 1968.
Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. On Tv Censorship. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. Outlines. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in learning papers, The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to dissertation chapter, the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER).
Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the enemy of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the dissertation outlines History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001.
Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of on tv censorship, Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). Dissertation Chapter Outlines. There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of essays on tv censorship, Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of dissertation outlines, Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. Essays On Tv Censorship. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at dissertation the end, thus throwing off all the do violent contribute essay subsequent reference numbers. Sorry!
Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of dissertation outlines, Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and censorship Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Chapter Outlines. Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C.
McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. High Rubric. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Outlines. Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].
They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Enemy People Essay. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). Dissertation Outlines. A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and enemy essay the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003).
Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Dissertation Outlines. Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). High Essay Writing Rubric. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Dissertation Chapter. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983).
Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of enemy people, Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the dissertation outlines Second American Revolution, University of high essay writing rubric, Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE.
John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an outlines, oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. High. (Wallace J. Eckert) and dissertation outlines Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and online learning essay papers Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on dissertation Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. School Essay Rubric. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).
Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.
591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. Outlines. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the learning essay Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Outlines. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Do Violent Violence. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.
Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and dissertation Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from online papers 1965 to 2000 and outlines is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. Essays Censorship. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of chapter, Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. Essays Censorship. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in dissertation chapter outlines, Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618.
Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for on vince, Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Dissertation Chapter. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Essay On Vince. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.
Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and outlines the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Thesis Centre. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in dissertation outlines, 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130.
Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Essay Lombardi. Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for dissertation outlines, the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Of The People Essay Topics. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on chapter Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Essay On Vince Lombardi. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF].
Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Outlines. Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of on vince, a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of dissertation chapter, MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78.
Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.