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applying resume This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for simple essay, a CV.
A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is 50 essays shooting dad, a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. Simple On Terrorism? The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right).
A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on 50 essays dad, your CV). Simple Essay On Terrorism? The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Pressure Essay? Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the CV on on terrorism, one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and eric gill essay simple. A typical section order is: There is an essay, example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and eric gill essay your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country). Simple? Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to common app, forward letters to essay on terrorism, you).
If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on domyhomework, your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for simple, you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the shooting, telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly.
Create two columns. Simple? Use the left-hand column for good statement, dates. On Terrorism? For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the essay writing on my father, right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by simple on terrorism writing the name of the pressure, company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. Simple? You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying.
If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the essay on my father, Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. On Terrorism? When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the essay common app, word I on your CV; this is essay on terrorism, understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Remember that the 50 essays dad, person reading your CV may not be familiar with the essay, education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the eric gill essay, left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the essay on terrorism, first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the of peer, year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on on terrorism, one line, followed by further details (the course name or the write good contrast, number of exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first.
If you have been to simple essay, a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the essay writing, name so that the on terrorism, level is clear. If the university is shooting dad, one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the town and simple on terrorism country after the university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the dad, subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is on terrorism, probably different from that in your country. Essay? You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in the name. Essay? If you took exams in app a wide range of simple on terrorism subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of subjects passed instead of the on my father, subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications.
If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of this course. If so, write this in simple essay on terrorism a line under the main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). Of Peer Essay? If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for simple essay on terrorism, information. The exact list of writing personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980.
Note that the essay on terrorism, date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to write Gender:, followed by domyhomework Male or Female, if this is not obvious to essay on terrorism, a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by write good compare contrast a description of the on terrorism, status implied by the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests.
As you have come to the UK to write good thesis statement compare contrast, study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for simple, them. If you do need to essay writing on my, give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand.
Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. Essay On Terrorism? It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in change essay common app English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. Simple Essay? 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in eric gill essay smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. Essay? The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and of peer pressure the internet. Fluent in essay Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean.
If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of statement compare visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. Simple? You may want to mention the level of your English ability.
Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and writing on my father you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for on terrorism, the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of app Fortnum Mason's in simple Piccadilly, as advertised in eric gill essay Loot Recruit on essay on terrorism, 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan.
This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and change common am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. Simple Essay? I am an enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to effect of peer pressure essay, work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at simple essay on terrorism, the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Change Common? Use the simple on terrorism, spell-checker on the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English).
Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and ask this person for any comments they may have. Of Peer Pressure Essay? If sending your application by simple essay post, send it by first class rather than by app second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an simple, application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and eric gill essay ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to simple on terrorism, check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you.
It is 50 essays shooting dad, often the case that people are invited for simple, an interview for only a small number of the jobs to domyhomework domyhomework, which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to simple on terrorism, get a job. If you are rejected by writing on my father a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.
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Terrorism Essay (PDF Download Available) - ResearchGate
How to create your focused, relevant CV. Three sections makes it easy and clear for essay on terrorism, the reader. EDUCATION: normally at good thesis contrast, the top (especially for simple, recent graduates entering the jobs market for the first time). Include awards under each relevant education section, for domyhomework, example, grant awards for a DPhil, school prizes, undergraduate prizes or high rankings (‘2nd in year’) EXPERIENCE (rather than “Employment”): this can include voluntary work, student society roles, internships, paid work etc INTERESTS or COMMUNITY ACTIVITY AND SKILLS should be included to indicate extra, diverse talents. Within this section, you might use sub-categories such as IT Skills (but only essay on terrorism, if they are specialist or unusual); Languages; Music; Sports etc. Remember that the CV is to get you the meeting or interview only, so don’t feel you have to include every last detail – leave them wanting to learn more about you. Of Peer Pressure. Specific things to leave out include: The words ‘Curriculum Vitae’ or ‘CV’ Date of birth and simple / or age Marital status, disability, children, partner, sexual preferences, sex, racial background, religion Home address Nationality – unless you want to show that you do have the Right to Work in the country in essay question Referees – this takes up space, they’ll assume you have them, there are probably other opportunities to record these details Basic IT skills: these days everyone can use the internet, word processing, spreadsheets etc to a competent level – but do include any super-advanced qualifications in simple essay MS Office and of course any specialist software like C++, SPSS etc Areas of potential, personal contention, e.g. religious beliefs, political affiliation (though if you’ve worked for a political organisation this will obviously be mentioned under work experience) Soft interests such as ‘socialising with friends, cooking, reading, cinema’. If you do have deep and specialist interest in one of domyhomework domyhomework these, then give more details: ‘French films of on terrorism 1940-1960’ Aim to create powerful bullet points, with each bullet focused on 50 essays dad a single idea. Consider applying the simple essay, ‘CAR’ mnemonic.
Context : the organisation name, your job title and pressure dates is often sufficient. Action Words that demonstrate you took responsibility are useful for starting the bullet point, to highlight skills used – e.g. Simple Essay On Terrorism. analysed, created, recommended, managed or led. See our list of action words on our Demonstrate You Fit the Job Criteria page for more. Results can often be linked within an thesis contrast individual bullet point. The traditional – or ‘reverse chronological’ – CV is the most commonly used format. It often lists your education, experience and essay on terrorism additional activities – with your most recent achievements first. The sections of the traditional CV will normally be as follows: Personal information – such as contact details – but NOT date of essay birth, sex, marital status etc.
Space may mean you should just list one contact detail, e.g. Oxford email address (not XYZ@fluffybunny.com), and your mobile number Education Experience – the core of your CV Additional skills Interests. This format makes it easy for simple, employers to spot relevant information fast and gives a complete picture of a candidate in a clear and structured way. Remember, however, that you can alter the domyhomework domyhomework, titles to suit the application you are making. On Terrorism. For example, you could use the heading “Teaching Experience” instead of eric gill essay “Experience” if you are applying for a teaching job. Even if you don’t have much paid work experience, you can include voluntary work or contributions you have made to clubs or societies (inside or outside Oxford). In a skills-based CV, the essay on terrorism, information is arranged to highlight relevant skills, with details presented under different skills categories. A concise summary of eric gill essay your work history normally precedes or follows your relevant skills section, to provide context. This type of CV is used to highlight the transferability of your skills, and so is useful if you are applying to essay, a role without direct experience. Write. We generally only recommend using this style if you have great experience, as a considerable amount of evidence is required to essay on terrorism, make the skills sound meaningful. As such, it is normally used by: people changing career direction people transitioning from academia into industry or other sectors.
However, a similar style may be useful if you are applying to essay app, your first ever piece of simple essay on terrorism work experience and have had few positions of responsibility, as it allows you to emphasise transferable skills you have gained from studying at Oxford. If you are heading to north America, then you might need a resume rather than a CV. They are very similar documents so use our CV guide, and write good thesis statement compare supplement it with the information here to build a great CV into essay a great resume. Default page size – A4 (21cm x 29.7cm) is replaced by Letter (21.59cm x 27.94cm) Use ‘Page Layout’ options in write good thesis contrast Word (or equivalent) to change the size of your document page Cut down a piece of A3 paper to size when checking out how it prints. Spelling – insure / ensure the simple essay, resume is oriented / orientated to the readers’ spelling conventions: Set your default language to US or Canadian English to use your spelling and grammar check Watch out for common ‘Britishisms’ such as ‘analysed’ and ‘organised’ (both have a ‘z’ in North America) See Wikipedia’s page on spelling differences. Include a cover letter with a resume, unless you are told otherwise Write a considered and thoughtful thank you letter within 48 hours of write thesis statement compare contrast any interview Convert your resume and cover letter into PDFs before sending them to an employer.
The academic CV is very different from a CV used for non-academic job applications. It focuses purely on your academic achievements and experience, and there is no page limit – although you should always keep it concise and relevant. First, look at simple, the skills and competencies that the good compare contrast, hiring department / research group requires. You can identify these from the person specification, the simple essay on terrorism, job advert, or your own research. Is this a research or teaching only job? Or will you be doing research, teaching and administration (typical for write thesis compare contrast, lectureships)? Do they highlight any particular skill areas, such as organisation or team work?
Look at what you need to do to apply. CVs are usually accompanied by cover letters, but they might also ask you to submit an application form, research and/or teaching statement. Once you are clear what the employer wants, start to tailor your CV to the post. The following sections are typical for the academic CV: Personal Information . Start the simple essay, CV with your name, address, telephone number and email address. Research Interests . Write bullet points or a short paragraph summarising your research. Statement Compare Contrast. Education . On Terrorism. Include degrees, possibly titles of theses, and common app the names of supervisors. Awards and Funding . Include undergraduate/postgraduate prizes, travel grants, doctoral scholarships, early career fellowships, and grants you have led on or are named on. Simple. Research Experience . Include any post docs or fellowships and domyhomework research assistant jobs. You might include more detail about essay, your doctoral research in this section too. Teaching Experience . Note any lecturing, seminar, tutorial, supervising, demonstrating, mentoring experience, and potentially non-academic teaching.
Give details about the role and responsibilities – even if it was informal – such as level of students, class sizes and of peer pressure topics you taught. Admin Experience . Highlight any conferences/seminars/reading groups you’ve organised, committees you have sat upon, and any other relevant administration experience. Relevant Training . Include academic teaching training, research methods training etc. Essay On Terrorism. Relevant research/technical/laboratory skills . You may find it useful to eric gill essay, list these under one heading if you find yourself repeating throughout various sections. Patents . Simple Essay. Give details of the eric gill essay, title, inventors, patent number and date granted. Essay On Terrorism. Professional memberships. List these – e.g. the Royal Society of Chemistry or the British Association of of peer essay American Studies. Include dates. Publications . Give full details as you would if citing them, and use a consistent style. You may wish to highlight (e.g. bold/underline) your name.
Conference presentations and posters . Highlight whether paper or poster and cite similarly to your publications with full author list, title, date and location. Referees . Ideally these should all be academic referees. They should be people who know you well and who are known in your field. Make sure the CV is essay on terrorism, focused on academia. Only include non-academic work experience or extra-curricular activities and interests if you feel they are very relevant to the post you are applying for. You might include languages and IT skills if they are relevant. You might include your nationality in your personal details if you think it will be an advantage – e.g. Good Compare. so that they know you are a European citizen and have the simple on terrorism, right to work in good statement compare the UK. If you have limited or no published work, consider including works in progress. Clearly label publications as ‘forthcoming’, ‘under review’ or ‘submitted’ if they are in simple essay process, but not yet in print or accepted.
If you are unconcerned about giving your ideas away before they go to a publisher, you could have a separate heading for effect, ‘Working Papers’ that you are preparing for on terrorism, publication but have not submitted yet. Include when and where you plan to submit them. Write Thesis Compare Contrast. If you have been invited to give seminars or conference papers, highlight under a separate heading. Translate jargon/acronyms that others might not understand, especially if applying abroad. Make sure you read the “Top Tips” in “Standard CVs”, above, which are relevant to Academic CVs as well. Does your name stand out? (Write it at the top – no need to simple essay, say “Curriculum Vitae”) Can you be easily contacted using the eric gill essay, information you’ve given? Are there particularly relevant courses/projects/extended essays you could mention? Are A-levels and GCSEs summarised on one or two lines each? Have you given an simple essay on terrorism indication of the equivalence or grading system of any non-UK qualifications? Are section headings tailored to the recipient? (e.g. Teaching Experience, Voluntary Work, etc.) Have you included greater detail on eric gill essay more relevant experience?
Have you tailored your achievements and essay on terrorism skills to the job? Are your sentences punchy and writing father concise? Have you followed the advice in our page on essay demonstrating you fit the job criteria? Is it clear what level of attainment you have in languages, IT, etc.? Are you able to domyhomework, use this section as another opportunity to demonstrate required competencies? Have you indicated your level of commitment?
Is this section headed “referees” and simple essay on terrorism not “references”? If you are giving contact details – have you asked your referees’ permission? Does the section take up too much space? If so, put their details on a single line – for 50 essays shooting, example: Dr M. Essay On Terrorism. Misra, Keble College, Oxford, OX1 1AB, email@example.com, 01865 377778. Does it look attractive at first glance?
Would you want to on my, read it? Would an employer want to read it? Does it fit on simple essay on terrorism to one or two full pages? Has it been checked for on my, accurate and consistent grammar and simple essay on terrorism spelling? Many recruiters will dismiss even the most qualified candidate if there is even one typo in the CV, cover letter or application form. Are fonts (type and effect size) consistent and not too small (11pt minimum)?
Is the layout well balanced, with effective use of essay space, using the full width of the page? Broadly speaking, does the change essay common app, most relevant information occupy the most space? Are dates reverse chronological if you are using this type of simple on terrorism format? Have you quantified your achievements? Have you checked for gaps in your history? We recommend you explain any significant time gaps in writing on my your CV. There is no right or wrong way of presenting your personal circumstances. You may have been travelling, working on an independent project (e.g. writing), been ill, or caring for others. If it helps, speak with a Careers Adviser to identify the most effective way for you to present your circumstances on a CV and/or cover letter as this will differ with each individual.
Hold your CV at arms-length – does it look easy to read? Fold it vertically and scan the left side in 3 seconds. – Will the reader get the gist of your application? – Are your strongest responsibilities and achievements immediately visible? Check for jargon and acronyms, and over-long bullets – edit vigorously Is it the essay, right length? – Some employers ( e.g. investment banks) expect just one page, so check beforehand. – Aim for a maximum of two pages, except for an academic CV Save your CV as a PDF to 50 essays dad, ensure it keeps its beautiful formatting Finally, finally , take a break and on terrorism then proofread – yes, again! Double check for essay on my father, typos and simple errors. Then send it off! It can take a number of domyhomework revisions before you are happy with your CV, and getting independent advice can prove very helpful: it might all make perfect sense to you, but you could be surprised by the things that others may question or not understand. Make an appointment and ask for feedback from a Careers Adviser.
For sector specific advice about how to tailor your CV please refer to simple essay on terrorism, our sector information. Putting Together the statement, Perfect Consulting CV – information sheet Careers Beyond Profit – How to Write a Winning CV – presentation slides CVs: A Brief Introduction – presentation slides. Our Resource Centre has a number of files and books on CV writing that you may find useful. The Careers Service subscribes to essay, GoinGlobal on behalf of Oxford students. Write Good Statement Compare. It features around 40 country guides.
You can get advice on your CV from any of our Careers Advisers by booking an advice appointment. Most of simple our careers fairs also have CV Clinics, to effect essay, get advice from simple essay on terrorism, recruiters. Prospects: CV Writing – has sample CVs, sample covering letters, and tips on what to include TARGETjobs: Applications and CV Advice Academic CVs: 10 Irritating Mistakes – a Guardian article, 2013 Vitae: Researcher CVs: A specialist resource for the professional development of researchers, including many example CVs for careers inside and outside academia Vitae: Academic CVs: Information specifically on academic CV writing jobs.ac.uk – more information on change common app academic CVs. When: Wednesday 18 October, Exhibitors from 14.30-18.00 Where: Oxford Town Hall. Explore consultancies – from simple on terrorism, global companies to boutique firms.
Get CV feedback from change common, consultants in our 1-to-1 clinics. Meet nearly 60 organisations including all the major names in essay the sector – from Accenture to change essay common app, ZS Associates. The fair booklet will be available online one week before the fair. Visiting employers include: 2020 Delivery Accenture Alfa AlixPartners UK Ltd. American Express Applied Predictive Technologies (APT) A.T. Kearney Bain Company The Boston Consulting Group UK LLP Brainlabs Digital Cambridge Economic Policy Associates (CEPA) Capco Capgemini Consulting Capital One Carnall Farrar Chartwell Consulting Ltd CIL Management Consultants Compass Lexecon Corporate Value Associates Credo Business Consulting Deloitte Efficio Elixirr EY FTI Consulting GALLUP Integration Javelin Group Kraft Heinz L.E.K. Consulting Lifescience Dynamics Marakon Mars Co McKinsey Company NERA Economic Consulting Newton Europe NMG Consulting OCC Strategy Consultants Oliver Wyman Oxford Economics Ltd PA Consulting Parthenon-EY Prophet Brand Strategy PwC QuantSpark QuintilesIMS RBB Economics RealFoundations, LTD.
Redshift Strategy Restaurant Brands International Roland Berger Solon Management Consulting SSG Health Strategy TWS Partners Limited White Space Strategy XY ZS Associates. Upcoming Career Workshops for Researchers. Career Management for Research Staff and simple essay DPhils. Looking to manage your career more effectively? This workshop has been designed specifically for University Research Staff at all levels and at any stage in their career, who want to app, step back and spend a few productive hours focusing on identifying their ideal job and future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia. An interactive mix of short individual exercises and simple on terrorism small informal group discussions will help you to build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to your career and personal circumstances and to good thesis compare, explore career pathways. The session will cover: reflections on where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively. You will be encouraged to draw your insights together to begin a realistic personal career plan and to consider your next steps. Researchers@ Oxford Careers Fair.
Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to on terrorism, book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to domyhomework, discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out simple essay of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on the Oxford Careers Fair page. The fair booklet for effect essay, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Finance Careers Fair. When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on simple essay the number of eric gill essay bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on essay the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Management Consulting Careers Fair.
When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to eric gill essay, Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Further information on on terrorism the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Want to work in the public sector? If you are interest in careers anywhere within the 50 essays, public sector, in simple addition to our first presentation on Monday 9 October at the Careers Service on the Civil Service Fast Stream (14:15 – 15:30) you should make plans to join us at the Oxford Careers Fair on 14 October. A clutch of change common app leading public sector employers will be at the fair throughout the day, and our panel session Making a Difference – graduate careers with social impact will bring together representatives from Times Top 100 employers Teach First, the simple, NHS Leadership Academy, the Civil Service Fast Stream, Frontline and the National Graduate Development Programme for 50 essays, local government (NGDP). The organisations will showcase their leadership development opportunities in a variety of exciting public sector roles and you can discover more about the importance of the key transferable skills in simple the sector. Each employer will give a short presentation about the key skills they look for, followed by a QA panel session. Making a Difference – graduate careers with social impact will start at 13:20. Domyhomework Domyhomework. You do not need to book a place, but please bear in mind that spaces will be allocated on a first-come, first-served basis.
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Les og l?r: Hvordan skrive stil til 6. Denne veiledningen vil aller mest være til hjelp for folk som kan skrive ordene riktig , men som sliter med å finne noe å skrive om som vil falle læreren i smak. Blir du trukket for on terrorism, skrivefeil hjelper det jo ikke at common, din historie er akkurat noe slikt som læreren vil ha. Simple Essay? Men følger du guiden vil du kanskje gjøre det bedre enn du pleier likevel. Å skrive stil er noe man gjerne gjør på tentamen, så dette er en slags tentamensguide: Hvordan få best mulig karakter, i forhold til dine forutsetninger, og legge ned minst mulig arbeid i dette. Dette lynkurset vil ikke gjøre deg til en bedre skribent, snarere tvert imot.
Altså må du unngå å bruke disse tipsene hvis du skal skrive noe i andre, viktigere sammenhenger. Hvis du har skrevet stil før, og fått en karakter du er godt fornøyd med: let frem denne! Nå kan det være du er så heldig at eric gill essay, du sitter på en fasit på hva slags greier læreren din er fan av. Essay? En god stil kan ikke gjentas for mange ganger. Eric Gill Essay? Ikke en gang til samme lærer. Simple? Hvis du har en slik stil i din besittelse, kan du regne denne som grunnstilen. Effect Pressure? Selv har jeg en slik stil, og den har nå blitt mal for mange av mine senere stiler. Men det kan jo også godt være at simple essay, du ikke sitter på et slikt dokument, så jeg tenkte å liste opp hva slags greier som pleier å bli tatt godt i mot. Eksempler på enkle stiler som slår an: Denne stiltypen er veldig enkel å skrive. Change Common? Du skriver en vanlig historie som er rett frem i forhold til oppgaven.
Men du passer på å bruke et litt villere språk og syke sammenligninger som får det til å virke som du sitter og ler av din egen stil. Simple? Det skal helst være litt morsomt. Her er det om å skrive om noe seriøst på en positivt utroverdig måte. Domyhomework? Avslutningen ler helst av historien og får frem at on terrorism, folk er dumme. 2. Change App? En (egentlig ikke) dyp og undrende stil.
Denne pleier å slå an, og får deg også til å virke både smart og reflektert. Simple Essay On Terrorism? Den passer supert til oppgaver der du blir bedt om å skrive stil ut ifra et bilde. 50 Essays Shooting Dad? Her kan det være et poeng å stille mest mulig spørsmål, og svare på dem på måter de ikke har blitt svart på før. Essay On Terrorism? Du trenger ikke å tro på det du skriver overhodet. Det første avsnittet inneholder gjerne mange fine, kloke ord. Of Peer Pressure Essay? Det er fint hvis det er en mening bak, men det behøves ikke. Simple Essay On Terrorism? Ord å bruke i en slik innledning: Evighet, mennesker, hjerte, himmel, helvete, univers osv.
Noe lignende gjør du i slutten, her kjører man gjerne noe som er litt på siden av selve handlingen. Writing On My? Gjenta gjerne ord fra begynnelsen av stilen, da gir du et helhetlig inntrykk. On Terrorism? Læreren vil også tro at effect pressure essay, det var meningen at simple essay on terrorism, han/hun skulle feste seg ved dette i begynnelsen av historien, og at shooting dad, det var på grunn av disse ordene at resten av historien ”skjedde”. En undergruppe til denne typer stiler, er De storslagne stilene , de tar gjerne opp større spørsmål som eksistens eller verdensproblemer. Simple? De har titler som dette: ”A story about good thesis being” Dette er den aller enkleste og mest utbredte av de 3 hovedtypene. Simple On Terrorism? Når jeg skriver denne type stil, begynner jeg alltid med å beskrive en fin sommerdag. Jeg skriver for det meste historien i jeg-person, fra en mannlig synsvinkel. Etter at sommerdagen er beskrevet, ser eller møter han henne. Of Peer Pressure? Da oppstår det en eller annen komplikasjon, før de lykkelige går inn i midnattssola sammen. I alle fall slutter det i en eller annen ”vakker” scene.
Ikke bli redd hvis du blir litt kvalm av din egen stil. Simple Essay On Terrorism? Hvis du vil unngå flaue kommentarer fra læreren, kan du blande denne med stiltype 1. Of Peer Essay? Da gir du et kraftig spark til slike historier, og læreren vil oppfatte deg som moden. Essay On Terrorism? En slik stil kan f. Essay Writing On My Father? eks ha tittelen: ”Ei standard, klissete kjærleikshistorie” - Noter opp kule ord og setninger på notatarket ditt. Simple? 3 utrolige setninger kan redde en stil. Write Thesis? Stjel setninger fra favorittforfatteren, internett, tidligere oppgaver og venner.
- Hvis historia di ikke funker helt, lag en begynnelse før begynnelsen i parentes eller kursiv. On Terrorism? Dette gjør de fleste andre ikke, og det vil si at essay, din skiller seg ut. - Bruk tegn! De er våre venner. Simple? Les Solems vlogg for innføring i bruk av f. Pressure? eks semikolon. - Velg oppgavene der du får velge sjanger og tittel selv, da slipper du å stresse med sjangertrekk og begrensningene som en tittel gir. Simple? Disse bildeoppgavene som pleier å være på eksamen kan du jo nesten skrive hva som helst til. - Skriv for all del mainstream, lærere synes stiler skal følge alle reglene. - Finn på en slutt!
Alle historier skal ha en begynnelse, en midtdel og en slutt. Write Good Thesis Compare Contrast? Mange dropper det siste. Essay On Terrorism? Læreren skal ikke spørre seg om ”dette var alt”. Dad? Ha gjerne en dypere slutt i en setning. - Ikke beskriv alt, less is more. Essay On Terrorism? Fortetta språk er stilig. - Ikke skriv 10 sider. 50 Essays Shooting? Mest fordi det irriterer meg at simple, du gjør det. Akkurat som du sier nei til opplesning av stilen i klassen. - Ikke følg denne guiden hvis du får en kjempeidé på tentamen, dette er ment for tilfeller der idéene mangler.
Lykke til med hva det måtte være! 21 kommentarer In Les og l?r: Hvordan skrive stil til 6 det er oppskriften pa fantastiske stiler… Likte metoden sostern brukte; skriv stilen, lever den til meg og la meg sette den sammen riktig… Du likte det ja? Der har du noe jeg aldri ville ha gjort for write thesis, mine sosken. Simple? Men sa er vel du mye snillere enn meg. #2 jeg er det vet du… hun fiukk 500 for write good thesis compare, hver 6er hun fikk og jeg fikk 300 av de… Da fikk du jo litt for on terrorism, strevet i hvert fall. #4 gjorde jo det da=)
Slapp du i hvert fall a gjore alle tingene hennes. l?reren var liker at alt skal v?re skildret. et tips: bruk ordboka, den er din beste venn. Det er forskjell pa l?rere. Ordboka er alles beste venn. 50 Essays Dad? Spesielt i nynorsk. #8 spynorsk mordliste* Nynorsk er fint! ;p.
“Skriv eit slag for simple, sidemolet!” Det med mal funker ikke helt har jeg fatt erfare… Leverte inn en stil fra tiende, som jeg hadde fatt en 6?er pa, inn til norskl?reren pa videregaende og fikk 3/4:/ Sa var det jo ikke helt det jeg mente. Hvis du har skrevet dette selv, sa vil jeg gjerne gifte meg med deg. Hvis det betyr at pressure essay, du er en sprakbevisst ung mann, skal du ikke se bort fra at det kan la seg ordne. Dette var et knallbra innlegg, plante, og det inspirerte meg nesten til a skrive et innlegg sjol i samme gate. I 8. Simple? brukte jeg det knepet om a skrive om noe l?reren likte, da jeg visste han var batfrelst. Essay On My? Scoret nok litt ekstra da jeg skrev at essay, en av mine lidenskaper var bater (s?rlig), men dette er jo et farlig omrade a bevege seg ut pa, og jeg tapte nok litt pa at essay, jeg ikke klarte a stave Christian Radich korrekt (lidenskap for simple essay, bater, men kan ikke stave navnet pa en av Norges mest kjente seilskip ?) I tiende oppdaga jeg plutselig formelen for domyhomework domyhomework, a skrive en knakende god engelskstil, og det siste halvaret prikket jeg inn sekser etter sekser. Simple Essay? Faktisk, pa den fjerde eller femte sekserstilen pa rad sa l?reren min at writing on my father, “denne ikke var av vanlig kvalitet”, jeg fikk 6-. Simple On Terrorism? Nar jeg leser stilene na er jeg ikke videre imponert, sa det handler nok om a finne formelen snarere enn a skrive godt.
Til alt hell fikk jeg pa VGS en norskl?rer som var utrolig dyktig (til tross for at write good statement compare, hun var en tyrann), og her var formelen for en god stil a faktisk skrive godt. Slik utviklet jeg ogsa skriveferdighetene mine, sa all ?re til henne for simple essay, det. Igjen: Supersnasent innlegg. Effect Pressure Essay? Jeg digger deg. juni 24th 2006 at on terrorism, 3:38 am. Kj?rlighetshistorier har jeg jammen aldri provd meg pa, fikk nemlig for to write good thesis compare contrast, ar siden streng beskjed av engelskl?reren var om a ikke skrive det, rett og slett fordi hun ikke likte “sann sol”. On Terrorism? Tihi;o)
juni 24th 2006 at change essay app, 4:23 am. Fint innlegg! Det kan v?re greit a ha noe og ga etter nar man sitter pa en tentamen uten en eneste ide. Simple Essay? Jeg selv har et opplegg som jeg synes funker fint. Jeg skriver pa den maten jeg vil, og bryter de reglene jeg vil. Eric Gill Essay? Jeg kjenner til de aller fleste regler og kan det aller meste av grammatikk, men bryter dem gjerne hvis det er behov for simple on terrorism, det. Eric Gill Essay? Hvis man, nar man skriver, fokuserer for essay on terrorism, mye pa regler og grammatikk fremfor innholdet, betyr ikke det at dad, man er en god forfatter. Simple? Mange forfattere og forsavidt englebarna til l?rerne, tror at domyhomework, vet a folge disse reglene, er de domt til a lykkes. Essay? Dessverre sa synes jeg personlig at change, mye av det ikke blir annet enn gorrkjedelig.
Det er greit nok hvis man har et omfattende vokabul?r, men ofte blir det hele bare unaturlig hvis man bruker mange fremmedord som bare Ivar Aasen har hort om. En norsk-l?rer jeg hadde sa at simple on terrorism, jeg la pa en karakter rundt 4-, og at eric gill essay, de l?rerne som hadde gitt meg 6 og slikt for, ma ha v?rt altfor sjenerose. Simple Essay? Dette var grunnet selvstendighet. Domyhomework? Det at man kan ta spraket, vri og vende pa det som man selv vil, for sa a bruke det til a SKAPE noe, blir man ofte kritisert for i skolen. Essay On Terrorism? Jeg har det som prinsipp at 50 essays shooting, jeg aldri skal selge meg selv og min skrivestil for simple essay, a fa bra karakterer, sa det er egentlig bare opp til l?rerne. Eric Gill Essay? Noen l?rere gir meg bare fantastiske karakterer, mens andre sier jeg ikke kan skrive i det hele tatt. Det viser seg at simple on terrorism, de l?rerne som bryr seg om innholdet i teksten gir meg mye bedre karakter enn de som bryr seg om grammatikk og lignende, sa det har kanskje noe med det a gjore. Domyhomework? Derfor er det ogsa umulig a si hva som vil fa bra karakter, fordi man ma l?re fienden (l?reren) a kjenne, for simple essay on terrorism, sa a manipulere den, men siden jeg ikke bryr meg sa veldig om det, sa bare skriver jeg som jeg foler for good thesis statement contrast, – og sa far l?reren sette det tallet den foler for, ned pa papiret. Og du far ha meg unnskyldt hvis det jeg skriver ikke er velskrevet, fordi jeg har v?rt ute og er veldig trott akkurat na. juni 24th 2006 at essay on terrorism, 4:41 am. “Ikke skriv 10 sider.
Mest fordi det irriterer meg at du gjor det. Akkurat som du sier nei til opplesning av stilen i klassen.” hihi, bra sagt;) og veldig bra innlegg. Fantastisk mye av det som er sant egentlig. Domyhomework Domyhomework? Jeg for simple essay, min del, har lagt meg pa den deprimerende og hjerteskj?rende siden:P Og det har vel egentlig fungert noksa bra, om det er pga. Essay Writing On My? historien eller skrivematen, aner jeg ikke, men sann er det:P. Tss, det er bare noe hun sier. Lang og givende kommentar. Tusen takk. Jeg skriver ofte bevisst for on terrorism, a fa god karakter. Enig med deg nar det kommer til fremmedordene, though.
Mange tror visst at good statement compare, avansert er det samme som godt sprak. Essay On Terrorism? Det er jeg uenig i, og jeg tror de fleste som leser og skriver er enige om det. Jeg skriver en del pa fritida, faktisk. Effect Pressure Essay? Og da hever jeg meg selvfolgelig over simple essay on terrorism smating som regler. Regner med at change, l?rerne ser verdien i skriveriene dine uansett. Simple Essay? Men jeg far i alle fall darligere karakterer pa de stilene jeg er sann halvveis fornoyd med selv. L?rerne synes det blir for “spesielt”. Change Common App? Og de radet meg rett og slett til a skrive enklere pa eksamen. Gratulerer med kommentar 300, forresten.
Hjerteskj?rende funker supert. Simple? Men l?reren min er av den tro at common app, det man skriver nodvendigvis er selvopplevd. Simple? Sa jeg orker ikke maset lenger. Writing On My Father? ^___^ april 22nd 2007 at essay on terrorism, 10:02 am. Kan du hjelpe meg hvordan a skrive stil om sport. Dad? Dette er vanskelig for essay on terrorism, meg. Essay? Jeg er en invandrer her i Norge og jeg gar pa norsskkurs..Jeg synes at simple essay on terrorism, norsk er veldig vanskelig… stiler (1) selvmord (1) musikk (5) dikt (3) spill (1) bra (1) jul (1) lister (1) politikk (1) norge (1) lille (1) ord (6) men (1) viking (1) hei (5) er (3) toff (1) glad (1) eksamen (4) penger (1) 2007 (1) erlend (1) loe (1) selvskading (1) ungdom (1) norsk (1) vlogg (9) sosialisme (1) best (1) tentamen (1) darlig (1) nerd (1) konfirmasjon (1) ensom (1) anoreksi (1) vi (4) irriterende? (1) utrolig (1) folk (2) skjerf (1) l?rere (1) dette (1) kult (1) eksistens (1) naiv. Domyhomework? (1) marx (1) kul (2) :p (1) bror (3) kaniner (2) kval (1) super. Essay On Terrorism? (1) likevel (1) adeccoligaen (1) teite (1) sivert (1) solems_lee (1) b/g (1) elk (2) moose (1) anarkisme (1) grunnlovsdag (1) skolelys (1) hatbare (1) vet_ikke (1) bison (1) lykksalighet (1) materialistisk (1) kaketorsdag (1) hakan (1) brandon (1) www.detsoteliv.no (1) forr_evig (1) dreperne (1)
mars 2007 (1) januar 2007 (1) desember 2006 (1) november 2006 (2) oktober 2006 (2) september 2006 (1) august 2006 (1) juli 2006 (2) juni 2006 (2) mai 2006 (7) april 2006 (5) Superbizoniy in Bliss 10364 in effect pressure, Les og l?r: Hvordan skrive stil til 6 Genotro in essay, Kompetansem Potteplante in of peer pressure, Kompetansem stiftemaskin in Kompetansem Potteplante in simple on terrorism, Kompetansem Solems Lee in change essay, Kompetansem Grundes_lille_Verden in Kompetansem Potteplante in simple on terrorism, God Arbeiderdag alle! a bad mother****er called Solems Le… in change common, God Arbeiderdag alle! Ingenting varer evig og na er vi dessverre ved veis ende. Essay? VGB er lagt ned og vil ikke komme tilbake. VG Blogg var en tjeneste levert av VG Multimedia AS. Henvendelser rettes til: Magne Antonsen.
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A Cup of Tea by Katherine Mansfield. In A Cup of Tea by Katherine Mansfield we have the essay, theme of jealousy, insecurity, materialism and class. Taken from her The Doves’ Nest and Other Stories collection the story is narrated in the third person by an unnamed narrator and after reading the story the reader realises that Mansfield may be exploring the theme of class or rather the differences between social classes. By telling the thesis compare, reader that ‘they were rich, really rich, not just comfortably well off’ Mansfield succeeds in simple on terrorism, not only highlighting to the reader how wealthy Rosemary and Philip are but more importantly she manages to highlight how different Rosemary is from others. Something that is a little clearer when Mansfield also tells the write thesis, reader ‘if Rosemary wanted to shop she would go to Paris as you and I would go to Bond Street.’ Though it may appear to be insignificant the fact that Rosemary has a car may also be important as by introducing the car into the story it is possible that Mansfield is further highlighting the on terrorism, class difference that exists between Rosemary and write good statement, those around her. At the time the simple, story was written only the very wealthy (mostly upper class) would have had the resources to buy a car. The fact that Rosemary is surprised when Miss Smith first speaks to domyhomework her also suggests that Rosemary may be different to others. It would have been uncommon (at the simple essay, time the story was written) for eric gill essay, those considered to be of a lower class (Miss Smith) to engage with those considered to be upper class (Rosemary).
It is on terrorism also interesting that Rosemary thinks it is ‘extraordinary’ that Miss Smith has no money. This would again suggest that Rosemary is different from other people. Good Contrast. She can#8217;t imagine that somebody would have no money. On Terrorism. By describing Miss Smith as the #8216;other#8217; when Rosemary leads Miss Smith into the hall of her home and 50 essays, Rosemary as being like #8216;the rich little girl in her nursery#8217; Mansfield may be further highlighting the difference in class between both Miss Smith and Rosemary. Simple Essay. It is also interesting that Rosemary, while Miss Smith is in her bedroom having tea, leaves Miss Smith#8217;s hat and essay app, coat on the floor. By doing so Mansfield may be suggesting that in Rosemary#8217;s eyes, Miss Smith is not her equal. This would further highlight the difference in class (in Rosemary#8217;s eyes) between Miss Smith and Rosemary. The reader also doubts that Rosemary would take the simple, same course of shooting dad, action (leave a hat and coat on the floor) should one of her upper class friends visit her home.
At no stage in the story does the reader feel that Rosemary, by taking Miss Smith home with her, is doing so for the benefit of Miss Smith rather it serves to boost Rosemary#8217;s perception of herself. She does after all consider the taking of simple essay on terrorism, Miss Smith home with her to be an adventure, something she will be able to boast about to her friends. There is also some symbolism in the story which may be important. The little box that Rosemary sees in the antique shop, by telling the reader that Rosemary ‘must have it’, Mansfield may be highlighting the importance of effect, material things to simple Rosemary. Mansfield also appears to eric gill essay be using the setting, after Rosemary leaves the antique shop, to highlight Rosemary’s mood after she is unable to buy the little box. Mansfield tells the reader that the ‘rain was falling, and with the rain it seemed the dark came too, spinning down like ashes. There was a cold bitter taste in the air, and the new-lighted lamps looked sad.’ In many ways this setting mirrors how Rosemary may feel about having to leave the shop without purchasing the little box.
The flowers that Rosemary buys may also have some symbolic importance. By telling the reader that Rosemary wanted ‘those and those and those. Give me four bunches of those,’ Mansfield may be further highlighting how different Rosemary is from other people (due to her wealth) and how extravagant she is. Rather than just purchasing one bunch of flowers, as most people would and could only afford to do, Rosemary ends up with several. Rosemary#8217;s change of simple essay, attitude towards Miss Smith after Philip tells her that he thinks Miss Smith is pretty is also interesting. It is from pressure Philip#8217;s remark that the simple essay on terrorism, reader realises not only is Rosemary jealous of Miss Smith (because she is pretty) but she also appears to be insecure about her own physical appearance. It may also be a case that Philip is attempting to manipulate or control Rosemary, just as she has Miss Smith. By telling Rosemary that Miss Smith is pretty Philip is domyhomework domyhomework aware that it will result in Rosemary not only feeling jealous but it will also ensure that Miss Smith leaves their home, just as Philip wants her to. If anything Philip appears to want to disassociate himself (and Rosemary) from Miss Smith.
Which would again play on the theme of class. Philip does not want to associate himself with those (Miss Smith) he considers to be of a lower class. How insecure Rosemary may feel about her physical appearance is further noticeable by the fact that after Miss Smith leaves Rosemary#8217;s home, Mansfield tells the reader that Rosemary #8216;done her hair, darkened her eyes a little and put on simple her pearls.#8217; This action is important as it suggests that Rosemary is attempting to make herself pretty, at least in father, Philips eyes. The fact that Rosemary asks Philip for the money to simple buy the little box may also be significant as it would again highlight the importance of material things to Rosemary. Also by ending the story with Rosemary asking Philip #8216;am I pretty?#8217; Mansfield may be further highlighting how insecure Rosemary feels about her physical appearance. Eric Gill Essay. Despite being wealthy and living a life that the majority of people at the time the story was written were unable to live, Rosemary is insecure.
very crispy and informative. Thanks for the comment Suji. I#8217;m glad you found the post helpful. Why was Katherine Mansfield regarded as a modern writer? Thanks for the comment KD.
Mansfield may be considered a modernist writer because she tackled issues that were not largely seen in literature at the time. Issues like social status and class. wow its really a very powerful story#8230;#8230;. Thanks for the comment Dinesh. It is a powerful story. Please explain the meaning of #8216;if you took her to pieces#8230;but why be so cruel as to on terrorism take anyone to pieces.#8217; Thanks for the comment Can. The line is an essay writing father, unfavourable view of Rosemary. What the narrator is suggesting is that if you broke down each part of on terrorism, Rosemary#8217;s personality (and appearance) you might not like what you find.
And it would be cruel to eric gill essay do so. Nobody would like to be completely under a microscope. I am poor in English sentence understanding so please explain things in essay on terrorism, a simple way. Don#8217;t mistake me but like l love to study. If u took her to pieces#8230;but why be so cruel as to take anyone to domyhomework pieces. Please explain in simple way? Thanks for simple essay on terrorism, the comment Mahendran. Jealousy might be one reason why an individual might take another individual to pieces. Eric Gill Essay. Not liking someone too.
Often people who dislike another person will talk unkindly of essay on terrorism, that person. It was very useful. Thanks for the comment Iftikhar. I#8217;m glad you found the post helpful. Eric Gill Essay. Please tell me who is Peter—Michael in the story? Thanks for the comment Mahendran. Peter and simple essay, Michael may have been two of Rosemary#8217;s old boyfriends. It#8217;s a very nice story. Today I have a clearer concept about this story. Its our syllabus related story..
Thanks for the comment Gautom. I#8217;m glad you found the post helpful. Do u have analysis of other stories like the blind man . Thanks for the comment Mrs Bilal. I don#8217;t have a copy of The Blind Man. But if I come across a copy, I#8217;ll post a review.
What does materialism here mean and writing on my, who is materialistic Rosemary or her husband? Thanks for the comment Maqsood. When I refer to materialism in the story I am making reference to Rosemary. How she is more interested in possessions (small box in simple essay on terrorism, shop) than she is in the well-being of the individual. Though she brings Miss Smith home with her Rosemary is not necessarily concerned about her. Rather she considers bringing Miss Smith home to effect of peer pressure essay be similar to simple on terrorism an adventure she can tell her friends about. Rosemary#8217;s main focus throughout the story is on herself. Domyhomework. How she will have a story to tell her friends which will make her the centre of attention. It might also be important that though Philip doesn#8217;t appear to be materialistic. He is simple nonetheless extremely class conscious. Change Essay Common. Something that is noticeable when he makes sure that Miss Smith will leave the house.
He also acts as Rosemary#8217;s enabler, assisting her by giving her the money to buy the small box at simple essay on terrorism, the end of the story. Thanks so much for replying to me. Eric Gill Essay. I found it very useful and interesting. If you could also point out some of the figurative language in the story. Hi Maqsood.
There is some figurative language in essay on terrorism, the story some of which includes Mansfield telling the common, reader that Rosemary #8216;had a duck of simple essay on terrorism, a boy#8217; when describing Philip. Pressure. Also when Mansfield describes Rosemary#8217;s wealth she makes a comparison to an individual#8217;s grandparents #8216;not just comfortably well off, which is odious and stuffy and sounds like one#8217;s grandparents.#8217; There are further examples of figurative language. The flowers, when the essay, young girl is carrying them out domyhomework of the shop, are described as #8216;an immense white paper armful that looked like a baby in long clothes#8230;.#8217; The little enamel box box is also described as looking as #8216;though it had been baked in cream.#8217; Further on in the story Mansfield describes the rain as #8216;spinning down like ashes.#8217; Also when Rosemary first meets Miss Smith she #8216;shivered as though she had just come out of the water.#8217; Also when both Rosemary and Miss Smith are driving to Rosemary#8217;s home Mansfield describes the simple on terrorism, scene as though Rosemary and Miss Smith #8216;were skimming through the dusk.#8217; When Rosemary arrives home with Miss Smith she is described as being #8216;like the rich little girl in her nursery with all the cupboards to open, all the boxes to change app unpack.#8217; Then near the end of the story Mansfield describes Rosemary#8217;s heart as beating #8216;like a heavy bell.#8217; Have you any material about the Thomas Hardy short story The Withered Arm? Also what genre is A Cup of Tea? I don#8217;t have The Withered Arm Maqsood but if I come across it I#8217;ll post a review.
As far as I can work out A Cup of Tea would be part of the modernist tradition. Thank you so much it was really helpful. I would like to know the meaning of #8216;She had a duck of simple essay on terrorism, a boy. No not Peter—Michael. Thanks for the comment Jyoti.
I#8217;m glad you found the post helpful. The term duck (or ducky) would mean pleasant or excellent. So Mansfield is essay writing on my most likely suggesting that Rosemary has a good man in Philip. Simple. The hyphen between Peter—Michael is also confusing as the reader doesn#8217;t know if Mansfield is listing two men#8217;s names who may have previously courted Rosemary before she married Philip or if Peter—Michael is effect one individual#8217;s name. Either way though the simple, sentence refers to Philip. I would like to know the meaning of #8220;Rosemary Fell was not exactly beautiful #8220; Thanks for the comment Rajdip. Mansfield is possibly suggesting that Rosemary is a plain looking women.
That is how I would interpret the line. Thank you so much for replying to me. It is very helpful with understanding the story. No problem Rajdip. I#8217;m glad I was able to help you. This story was on our syllabus of English in India. Being an write thesis contrast, English literature student I have read all of Katherine Mansfield#8217;s short stories on free ebooks published by essay on terrorism, the University of Adelaide. Anyone wishing to read Mansfield#8217;s stories can do so there. Thanks for change essay common, the comment Anuradha and simple on terrorism, thank you for domyhomework, the information. On Terrorism. Thank you very much for 50 essays dad, your analysis.
I am studying Modern English literature and this week I have an essay on terrorism, assignment with this. Have you ever thought about Ms. Smith#8217;s feeling in this story? I saw many people emphasis Rosemary but don#8217;t mention Ms. Smith much. Thanks for essay writing father, the comment Fu. Mansfield may have deliberately not given Miss Smith a voice and by doing so may be suggesting that the lower classes themselves do not have a voice, unlike Rosemary who is the main focus for simple essay on terrorism, most if not all of the story. Throughout the story I found Miss Smith to be submissive to domyhomework Rosemary which might be the point that Mansfield was trying to make. To suggest to the reader the control that the simple on terrorism, upper classes had over the lower classes. Domyhomework. One incident that stuck out for me is when Rosemary leaves Miss Smith#8217;s hat and coat on the floor and Miss Smith says nothing. Simple Essay On Terrorism. It is essay writing on my as if Miss Smith is not Rosemary#8217;s equal though as you suggest we never get any insight into how Miss Smith may feel.
It may also be a case that Miss Smith because of her class looks highly upon Rosemary as many people from the lower classes would have done at simple essay on terrorism, the time when it came to someone from the upper classes. They would not have questioned them or engaged with them in any way. Which may in on my father, some way explain Miss Smith#8217;s relative silence throughout the story. Thank you so much for replying to me. My assignment is about retelling the story with first-person, Ms. Smith.
I have to imagine Smith#8217;s feeling and opinion when treated like that. I think when Rosemary decides to take Smith to her house, Smith#8217;s very surprised and confused. Afterward, when she#8217;s in Rosemary#8217;s house it can be scary. Simple Essay. But there are two things I can#8217;t make clear. First is the eric gill essay, reason why Smith initially asks Rosemary for the cost for simple, a cup of tea and whether Smith knows the conversation between Rosemary and essay writing on my father, Phillip is about her, because she doesn#8217;t enjoy any tea and has to essay go out.
Btw, your information helped me solve some problems in write, my complicated assignment, thank you so much. I would agree with you that Miss Smith is somewhat surprised and confused when Rosemary asks her to simple on terrorism visit her home. I think Miss Smith#8217;s reaction is due to the fact that it was uncommon at the time the story was written for the lower classes to mix with the good thesis contrast, upper classes. It is on terrorism also an environment in which Miss Smith is good compare contrast not accustomed to which as you suggest makes her feel somewhat afraid. I think Miss Smith asked Rosemary for the price of a cup of tea because she knew that Rosemary could afford it. Though it is also possible that Miss Smith may have asked everybody who passed by her for simple, the price of a cup of tea. I also don#8217;t think that Miss Smith is aware that Rosemary and Philip are talking about her. I think the reason she may not enjoy the tea is because of the environment around her. She would not be used to the comforts that come with upper class homes. If anything I felt that Miss Smith herself was out of her comfort zone.
Unsure of how to react to Rosemary and good thesis compare contrast, as such may have wished to essay leave the home. Please I need to write good statement compare contrast know if Oscar Wilde#8217;s short stories are representative of the Victorian era? Also the theme of feminism in A Cup of simple, Tea. Thanks for the comment Rabia. Eric Gill Essay. I#8217;ve not read Oscar Wilde so I#8217;m unable to answer that part of your comment. When it comes to feminism as a theme in simple on terrorism, the story it is possible that Mansfield is effect of peer highlighting the divisions that exist within feminism.
Rather than being there for essay, Miss Smith Rosemary through her insecurity and jealousy (of Miss Smith) ends up giving Miss Smith some money rather than bonding or connecting with her in any particular way. Miss Smith is more a plaything for Rosemary rather than being someone that Rosemary would view upon eric gill essay, as being her equal or someone she can understand and connect with. Why isn#8217;t the poor girl#8217;s first name mentioned in the story? why is it just miss Smith? Thanks for simple, the comment Arbaz. Mansfield probably withheld Miss Smith#8217;s first name to app highlight the fact that Miss Smith is simple on terrorism different to Rosemary. Write Good Compare. One person is upper class (Rosemary) and is given a first name while Miss Smith as a working class person has her name withheld. Mansfield is probably attempting to essay on terrorism differentiate between the classes by withholding Miss Smith#8217;s first name.
Could you please give us the themes and analysis for the following poems? a) The Question by Adrian Mitchell. b) Hawk Roosting by eric gill essay, Ted Hughes. Also, could you explain #8216;The Dead#8217; by James Joyce? Thank you so much! Thanks for the comment Piku. Simple. I only review short stories and domyhomework, know very little about poetry.
I have an analysis on The Dead on the blog. You can find it here. This story is in our syllabus thank you so much it is helpful. Simple. Thanks for domyhomework, the comment Paraminder. It#8217;s great knowing you found the post helpful. Good luck with your studies. Hi, there are a few questions could you please answer the following questions. 1- What did Rosemary decide to do with the girl and what was the latter#8217;s reaction to the proposal? Did she have any suspicion about the offer? 2- Why Rosemary didn#8217;t buy that box ? She is rich enough to buy it then why she didn#8217;t. Rosemary brought Miss Smith to her home and simple, when Philip triggered Rosemary#8217;s jealousies; Rosemary gave Miss Smith some money and sent her on her way.
It is possible that Miss Smith was suspicious of Rosemary as it would not have been the eric gill essay, norm at the time (and possibly still today) for upper class people to essay on terrorism associate with those of the lower classes. This could have aroused suspicion in Miss Smith. Rosemary may not have bought the box as she is being funded by Philip. Philip would have become aware of of peer pressure essay, how much Rosemary spent and as such may have scorned her. Rosemary is under the control, financially (and otherwise), of Philip. She is not independent of simple essay, him and as such feels as though she is answerable to Philip. Thank you so much. Who is Rosemary married to and how long was she married?
Thanks for the comment Subrata. 50 Essays Dad. Rosemary is married to Phillip. Simple Essay On Terrorism. As readers we do not know how long she has been married. What was thought of Rosemary#8217;s married life? Rosemary lives a very comfortable upper class life and may actually be spoilt by Philip.
Who wanted the price of a cup of tea from Rosemary? Miss Smith is the character who asks Rosemary for essay father, the price of a cup of tea. What was in simple on terrorism, the little box? Thanks for the comment Igor. Mansfield never lets the reader know if there was anything in the box. Is there any isolation and loneliness in this story. Thanks for eric gill essay, the comment Ezhar. I suppose you could suggest that Rosemary is lonely and isolates herself. Lonely because she is so reliant on Philip to provide for her.
The marriage may be based on convenience Philip has money and isolated because she doesn#8217;t mix with people of all classes (Miss Smith). Simple Essay On Terrorism. Is rosemary insecure? Thanks for the comment Sudipa. Rosemary is insecure. An example of which is eric gill essay when Philip tells her that Miss Smith is attractive. Rosemary feels threatened by the remark and as such changes her opinion of simple essay, Miss Smith. As to essay on my why Rosemay may be inseure is probably due to her dependency on Philip. She is not a strong independent woman. I am kindly asking you to explain the meaning of the first two paragraphs line by line. Beginning with the first paragraph. The narrator has an essay on terrorism, opportunity to be cruel towards Rosemary but decides against it.
Knowing that it would be unfair. Instead the narrator compliments many of the eric gill essay, good things that Rosemary has going for essay on terrorism, her. Good character traits. In the second paragraph the reader learns that Rosemary is married to a good man (a good catch). We also learn that Rosemary and Philip (Rosemary#8217;s husband)are rich and do not need for anything. In fact Rosemary can be flamboyant when it comes to spending money. Buying more than she needs.
Thanks for your help. No problem Mahendran. I#8217;m glad you found the post helpful. She had a duck of boy. Please tell me this sentence meaning. Thanks for the comment Mahe. The term duck (or ducky) would mean pleasant or excellent. So Philip is a pleasant or excellent man (or boy). She had a duck of a boy please see this sentence once again. I thought that her husband had a son. Duck means darling so darling mean husband?
Rosemary and change app, Philip have no children. None that are mentioned in the story at least. Darling can mean husband but usually it#8217;s a term of simple essay, affection towards someone. High and fine literature is wine, and mine is only water; but everybody likes water.
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cots resume Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) software is becoming an ever-increasing part of organizations' total IT strategy for building and delivering systems. A common perception held by many people is that since a vendor developed the software, much of the testing responsibility is carried by the software vendor. However, people are learning that as they buy and deploy COTS-based systems, the test activities are not necessarily reduced, but shifted to other types of on terrorism, testing not seen on some in-house developed systems. In this article, we will explore the challenges and solution strategies for testing COTS-based applications. We will also see a process for testing COTS-based applications. The Big Insurance Company plans to deploy a new system to allow its 1,200 agents to track customer and client information. Instead of writing its own application, the company has chosen to buy a site license of effect of peer pressure essay, a popular contact management application. The solution appears to be cost-effective, as the total cost of the simple software to be deployed to all agents will be about $100,000 as compared to an in-house development estimate of $750,000.
In addition, the insurance company does not have a history of successful software development projects. There are, however, some considerations that the writing father company realized after they made the purchase decision: New versions of the application will be released each year. An annual maintenance fee will be required for vendor support The interfaces between the contact management software and the office suite currently being used are not as seamless as originally thought. There are some computers being used by agents that are too old or too new for the software Each agent has an existing client contact database of about 1,000 people, but the data is essay, stored in a variety of thesis statement compare contrast, products and database formats. In planning the purchase and deployment of the application, the project manager allocated ample time to simple on terrorism perform a pilot deployment with 10 field agents using a variety of thesis statement contrast, computers. Initial feedback from the 10 agents indicated that the new application worked correctly, but some tasks were hard to understand and on terrorism, perform. Management felt that over the course of time, people would learn the system and find it easier to use with experience. The deployment plan was to have all agents download and install the new application over shooting dad a weekend. Instructions were posted on the company intranet about how to essay convert existing data. A help line was established to provide support to the agents.
On deployment weekend, 98% of the agents downloaded the new software and 50 essays dad, installed it on their notebook computers. About 20% of the agents had problems installing the software due to essay on terrorism incompatibilities with hardware and operating systems. About 10% of the agents discovered their computers were too slow to run the system. The real problems, however, started on domyhomework domyhomework, Monday when the agents started using the system. Simple! Many agents (about 70%) found the domyhomework application difficult to use and were frustrated. In addition, all of the agents found that the simple on terrorism new application could not perform some of the functions the old contact databases would. Fortunately, many of the agents kept their old contacts database. After four weeks, the company decided to implement another product, but this time more field testing was performed, other customers of the product were referenced, and more extensive testing was performed for interoperability, compatibility, correctness, and usability. All agents were trained using a web-based training course before the new application was deployed. The second deployment was a huge success.
In the first project, the results were: A loss of time and eric gill essay, productivity for the agents A loss of credibility for the project team and the IT department A loss of simple, sales as agents could not use the system to 50 essays shooting follow-up with prospects quickly. In the second deployment, The initial product was more usable and had more useful features Agents were trained to avoid confusion in how to use the product Testing was more complete, which gave a higher level of confidence in deploying the application. In comparing the deployments, the simple company learned that: Application features are just one aspect of the product's quality. End-users must understand how to use the product. The product must work with other products and on domyhomework, a wide variety of operating platforms.
Although the vendor tested the product, the customer has responsibility to test items the simple on terrorism vendor can't test. A product needs to be validated to work with an organization's business processes. This case study is not a true story, but it is eric gill essay, based in representative projects I have seen in acquiring and deploying COTS products. From this example, we can see the need for testing, but what are the issues in COTS testing and how do we solve them? Unique Challenges of Testing COTS-based Applications. Challenge #1 - COTS is a Black Box. The customer has no access to source code in simple, COTS products. This forces testers to adopt an external, black-box, test approach. Although black-box testing is certainly not foreign to testers, it limits the view and expands the scope of testing. This is very troublesome, especially when testing many combinations of good compare contrast, functions.
Functional testing is redundant by essay, its very nature. From the dad purely external perspective, you test conditions that may or may not yield additional code coverage. Simple Essay! In addition, functional tests miss conditions that are not documented in business rules, user guides, help text and other application documentation. Effect Pressure! The bottom line is simple essay on terrorism, that in functional testing, you can test against a defined set of eric gill essay, criteria, but there will likely be features and behavior that the criteria will not include. That's why structural testing is also important. In COTS applications, you are placed in a situation where you must trust that the vendor has done adequate structural testing to find defects such as memory leaks, boundary violations and performance bottlenecks. Solution Strategies: Avoid complex combinations of tests and the idea of testing everything.
Instead, base tests on functional or business processes used in the real world environment. The initial tendency of people in simple essay, testing COTS applications is to start defining tests based on eric gill essay, user interfaces and all of the combinations of features. This is essay on terrorism, a slippery slope which can lead to many test scenarios, some meaningful and others with little value. Challenge #2 - Lack of 50 essays shooting dad, Functional and Technical Requirements. The message that testing should be based on testable requirements has been made well. Requirements-based testing has been taught so much, however, that people are forgetting about how to test when there are no requirements or to take other angles on testing. Testing from the real-world perspective is validation, and validation is the kind of testing that is primary in a customer or user's test of a COTS product. The reality is that, yes, requirements-based testing is a reliable technique – but…you need testable requirements first.
In COTS you may have defined user needs, but you do not have the benefit of simple essay on terrorism, documents that specify user need to the developer for building the change common software. In fact, the developer of the software may not have the benefit of documented requirements for tests either. For the customer, this means you have to look elsewhere for on terrorism, test cases, such as: Exploring the application Business processes User guides. There is also a good degree of professional judgment required in designing validation test cases. Finding test cases is one thing.
Finding the right test cases and understanding the software's behavior is something much more challenging, depending on the nature of the product you are testing. Design tests that are important to how you will use the product. Essay Common! The features you test and the features another customer may test could be very different. On Terrorism! Consider the 80/20 rule as you define tests by identifying the 20% of the applications features that will meet 80% of eric gill essay, your needs. Challenge #3 - The Level of Quality is simple on terrorism, Unknown.
The COTS product will have defects, you just don't know where or how many there will be. For many software vendors, the primary defect metric understood is the level of defects their customers will accept and still buy their product. I know that sounds rather cynical, but once again, let's face facts. Eric Gill Essay! Software vendors are in business to on terrorism make a profit. Although perfection is a noble goal and (largely) bug-free software is a joy to use, a vendor will not go to needless extremes to pressure essay find and fix some defects. It would be nice, however, to at least see defects fixed in secondary releases. Many times, known defects are cataloged and discussed on a vendor's web site, but seeing them fixed is another matter. This aspect of COTS is where management may have the simple essay on terrorism most unrealistic expectations. A savvy manager will admit the domyhomework product they have purchased will have some problems. That same manager, however, will likely approve a project plan that assumes much of the testing has been performed by essay on terrorism, the vendor. A related issue is that the overall level of product quality may actually degrade as features that worked in a prior release no longer work, or are not as user friendly as before.
On occasion, some vendors change usability factors to the extent that the entire product is more difficult to use than before. Do not assume any level of 50 essays shooting, product quality without at least a preliminary test. A common strategy is not to be an early customer of simple, a new release. It's often wise to wait and see what other users are saying about the product. With today's trade press, there are plenty of forums to common app find what informed people are saying about new releases.
Beta testers are also a good source of early information about a release. An example of this was when some beta testers noticed that Microsoft failed to include the Java Virtual Machine in the Windows XP beta. Simple Essay! Prior to write good compare contrast the revelation, Microsoft had not indicated their intention. After the story was printed, Microsoft unveiled their strategy to focus on .Net. Challenge #4 - Unknown Development Processes and Methods. Time-to-market pressures often win out over following a development process.
It's difficult, if not improbable for a customer to on terrorism see what methods a vendor's development team uses in building software. That's a real problem, especially when one considers that the quality of software is the result of the methods used to good statement compare create it. Here are some things you might like to know, but probably will not be able to essay on terrorism find out: Were peer reviews used throughout the essay project? How experienced are the developers? Which phases of testing were performed? Which types of testing were performed?
Are test tools used? Are defects tracked? How do developers collaborate on projects? How are product features conceived and conveyed to simple essay developers? What type of development methodology used? Is there any level of customer or user input to the development and eric gill essay, testing processes? This is simple on terrorism, a tough issue to deal with because the effect of peer pressure essay vendors and simple essay on terrorism, their staffs do not want to reveal trade secrets. In fact, all vendors require their staff members – both employees and contract personnel – to sign nondisclosure agreements. Occasionally, you will see books are articles about certain vendors, but these are often subjective works and hardly ever address specific product methods. Independent assessments may help, but like any kind of shooting dad, audit or review, people know what to show and what to simple essay hide. Therefore, you may think you are getting an accurate assessment, but in reality you will only good thesis, get information the vendor wants revealed.
Challenge #5 - Compatibility Issues. Software vendors, especially those in simple on terrorism, the PC-based arena, have a huge challenge in trying to create software that will work correctly and reliably in a variety of hardware and operating system environments. When you also consider peripherals, drivers, and many other variables, the write compare contrast task of achieving compatibility is impossible. Perhaps the most reasonable goal is to be able to certify compatibility on defined platforms. The job of validating software compatibility is simple, up to effect of peer pressure essay the customer to be performed in essay, their environments. With the widely diverse environments in use today, it's a safe bet to assume that each environment is unique at some point.
Another wrinkle is that a product that is compatible in one release may not (probably will not) be compatible in a subsequent release. Good Compare Contrast! Even with upwardly compatible releases, you may find that not all data and features are compatible in essay on terrorism, subsequent releases. Finally, be careful to consider compatibility between users in your organization that are using varying release levels of the same product. When you upgrade a product version, you need a plan that addresses: When users will have their products upgraded Which users will have their products upgraded Hardware and other upgrades that may be needed Data conversions that may be needed Contingency plans in case the upgrade is not successful. Test a product in your environment before deploying to the entire organization. Have an upgrade plan in app, place to avoid incompatibility between users of the same product. Challenge #6 - Uncertain Upgrade Schedules and Quality. When you select a COTS product for an application solution, the simple on terrorism decision is essay father, often made based on facts at one point in on terrorism, time. Although the current facts about 50 essays shooting, a product are the only ones that are known and relevant during the acquisition process, the product's future direction will have a major impact in the overall return on investment for the customer. The problem is simple on terrorism, that upgrade schedules fluctuate greatly, are impacted by other events such as new versions of operating systems and effect of peer, hardware platforms, and are largely unknown quantities in terms of quality.
When it comes to future product quality, vendor reputation carries a lot of weight. Also, past performance of the essay product is often an domyhomework domyhomework, indicator of future performance. This should be a motivator for vendors to maintain high levels of product quality, but we find ourselves back at the point of understanding that as long as people keep buying the vendor's product at a certain level of quality, the essay on terrorism vendor really has no reason to improve product quality except for competing with vendors of similar products. Keep open lines of communication with the vendor. Eric Gill Essay! This may include attending user group meetings, online forums, focus groups and becoming a beta tester. Find out as much as you can about planned releases and: don't assume the vendor will meet the stated release date, and don't assume a level of quality until you see the product in action in your environment(s). Challenge #7 - Varying Levels of Vendor Support. Vendor support is often high on the list of acquisition criteria. However, how can you know for sure your assessment is correct? The perception of essay on terrorism, vendor support can be a subjective one. Most people judge the quality of support based on one or a few incidents.
In COTS applications you are dealing with a different support framework as compared to other types of applications. When you call technical support, the technician may not differentiate between a Fortune 100 customer vs. an individual user at home. Furthermore, when you find defects and report them to thesis compare contrast the vendor, there is no guarantee they will be fixed, even in future releases of the product. Talk to other users about their support experiences, keeping in mind that people will have a wide variety of experiences, both good and bad. Essay On Terrorism! You can perform your own test of vendor responsiveness by calling tech support with a mock problem. Challenge #8 - Difficulty in Regression Testing and Test Automation. For COTS products, regression testing can have a variety of perspectives. One perspective is to view a new release as a new version of the same basic product. In this view, the functions are basically the same, and the user interfaces may appear very similar between releases. Another perspective of change common, regression testing is to see a new release as a new product.
In this view, there are typically new technologies and features introduced to essay on terrorism the degree that the application looks and on my father, feels like a totally different product. The goal of regression testing is to validate that functions work correctly as they did before an essay, application was changed. For COTS, this means that the product still meets your needs in 50 essays dad, your environment as it did in the previous version used. Although the functions may appear different at points, the simple essay main concerns are that: Features you use often have not been dropped Performance has not degraded Usability factors have not degraded New features do not distract from core application processes New technology does not require major infrastructure changes. It's hard to discuss regression testing with discussing test automation. Without test automation, regression testing is difficult, tedious and imprecise. However, test automation of COTS products is challenging due to: Changing technologies between releases and versions Low return on investment The large scope of testing Test tool incompatibility with the product.
The crux of the issue is that test automation requires a significant investment in creating test cases and test scripts. The only write good thesis compare contrast, ways to recoup the simple investment are: Finding defects that outweigh the domyhomework cost of creating the tests Repeating the tests enough times to outweigh the manual testing effort. While it is simple essay on terrorism, possible that a defect may be found in the regression testing of of peer pressure, a COTS product that may carry a high potential loss value, the simple on terrorism more likely types of defects will be found in other forms of testing and will relate more to integration, interoperability, performance, compatibility, security and thesis statement compare contrast, usability factors rather than correctness. This leaves us with a ROI based on repeatability of the automated tests. The question is, Will the product require testing to the extent that the investment will be recouped? If you are planning to test only one or two times per release, probably not. However, if you plan to use automated tools to test product performance on a variety of platforms, or to just test the correctness of installation, then you may well get a good return on essay on terrorism, your automation investment. For the scope concern, much of the problem arises from the inability to write statement compare contrast identify effective test cases. Testing business and operational processes, not combinations of interface functions often will help reduce the scope and make the tests more meaningful.
Test tool compatibility should always be a major test planning concern. Preliminary research and pilot tests can reveal potential points of test tool incompatibility. View regression testing as a business or operational process validation as opposed to purely a functional correctness test. Look for simple on terrorism, gaps where the new version of the COTS product no longer meets your needs. Eric Gill Essay! If using test automation, focus on tests that are repeatable and have a high ROI. Perform pilot tests to essay on terrorism determine test tool compatibility. Challenge #9 - Interoperability and Integration Issues. When dealing the spider web of application interfaces and the subsequent processing on 50 essays dad, all sides of the interfaces, the complexity level of testing interoperability becomes quite high. Application interoperability takes application integration a step further.
While integration addresses the simple essay ability to pass data and effect pressure, control between applications and components, interoperability addresses the ability for essay, the sending and receiving applications to eric gill essay use the passed data and control to create correct processing results. It's one thing to pass the data, it's another thing for the receiving application to use it correctly. If all applications were developed within a standard framework, things like compatibility, integration and interoperability would be much easier to achieve. However, there is a tradeoff between standards and essay on terrorism, innovation. As long as rapid innovation and time-to-market are primary business motivators, standards are not going to be a major influence on change app, application development. Some entities, such as the Department of Defense, have developed environments to certify applications as interoperable with an approved baseline before they can be integrated into on terrorism the production baseline.
This approach achieves a level of integration, but limits the availability of write good thesis compare contrast, solutions in the baseline. Other organizations have made large investments in simple, interoperability and compatibility test labs to measure levels of interoperability and compatibility. Domyhomework! However, the simple effort and expense to eric gill essay build and maintain test labs can be large. In addition, you can only go so far in simulating environments where combinations of simple, components are concerned. Make interoperability an eric gill essay, acquisition requirement and measure it using a suite of interoperability test cases. Base any test lab investments in reasonable levels of platform and application coverage, realizing you will not be able to cover all possible production environments.
Prioritize interoperability tests to model your most critical most often used applications. Include interoperability tests in phases of testing such as system, system integration and user acceptance. Testing COTS-based applications is going to become a growing area of concern as organizations rely more on vendor-developed products to meet business needs. Simple Essay On Terrorism! Just because a vendor develops the thesis product does not relieve the customer from the essay responsibility of testing to write thesis statement ensure the product will meet user and business needs. In addition, the product may work in some environments but not others. Simple On Terrorism! Testing COTS products relies heavily on validation, which seeks to determine the correctness and fitness of use based on real-world cases and environments as opposed to effect of peer documented specifications. Although aspects of the COTS product may be described in business needs and acquisition criteria, many tests of the product will likely be based in a customer's daily work processes. The bottom line is that successfully testing COTS products is possible, but requires a different view of risk, processes, people and tools. All materials on this site copyright 1996 - 2009, Rice Consulting Services, Inc. Oklahoma City, OK 73189. Leaders are made, they are not born.
They are made by hard effort, which is the price which all of us must pay to achieve any goal that is worthwhile. -- Vince Lombardi.