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How Chechnya Became a Breeding Ground for Terror. by Lorenzo Vidino. Middle East Quarterly. Summer 2005, pp. 57-66. On September 1, 2004, a group of Chechen terrorists took hostage and two days later murdered at essay thesis least 335 schoolchildren and parents in Beslan, a town in contrast essay the Russian republic of North Ossetia. The atrocity focused world attention on Chechnya. The Russian government used the event to reiterate its arguments that Chechen terrorists and essay thesis, foreign jihadists supporting them have ideological, financial, and operational ties with Islamist terrorist organizations such as Al-Qaeda. Although President Vladimir Putin and top Russian security officials provided evidence of links between Chechen fighters and Al-Qaeda, European politicians and essay on computer, mainstream Western journalists focused instead upon the Russian army's brutality and dismissed Putin's claims as an attempt to gain sympathy in the West and deflect criticism of Russia's handling of a nationalist insurgency.
Putin may have been opportunistic, but he was also correct. A close examination of the evolution of the racial profiling essay, Chechen movement indicates that Islamists and followers of Al-Qaeda have increasingly sought to co-opt the Chechen movement as their own. Foreign fighters did not have a significant presence in the first Chechen war, which started soon after the 1991 collapse of the essay, Soviet Union and ended with the November 1996 Russian retreat and the creation of an autonomous Chechen government led by profiling thesis, the late Aslan Maskhadov. The main Chechen rebel leader during the first war, Dzhokhar Dudayev, had a generally secular nationalist outlook. According to essay Alexander Iskanderyan, director of the Center for Caucasian Studies in Moscow, the essay, Chechen independence movement had no Islamic dimension at all. But when the conflict began to attract media coverage, Islamic jihadis migrated to dissertation help Chechnya. Over the last decade, Islamist terrorists have co-opted the Chechen cause as part of a global jihad. Umar Ibn al-Khattab, a Saudi native who became the leader of the foreign mujahideen in Chechnya, said, This case is not just a Chechen matter but an Islamic matter, like Afghanistan. Al-Qaeda's involvement in racial Chechnya has grown steadily.
Drawn by media reports of the essay networking, Chechen conflict, Ibn al-Khattab and a few aides joined the jihad in the Caucasus in 1995. The same year saw the racial profiling essay thesis, death of Muhammad Zaki, an American who traveled to connectors essay Chechnya for the same reason. With expertise developed in Afghanistan during the 1980s and honed in Tajikistan early the following decade, Ibn al-Khattab made a qualitative contribution to racial profiling essay thesis the fight against the Russians. Essay! By the summer of 1996, Ibn al-Khattab and his band were involved in profiling essay the fighting that culminated in the capture of the Chechen capital of Grozny. Chechen commanders perceived the foreign jihadists in connectors different ways. Maskhadov, for example, hailed the contribution of mujahideen from many Islamic states [who] fought by our side. They took up arms and defended our people … These mujahideen were a great help and essay, support to us. Other Chechen leaders felt that the presence of the Afghan Arabs would become a problem: We do not need them, they will give us a lot of trouble—but we won't be able to stop them, one said. Russian checkpoints, brutal winters, and the inability of most of the mujahideen to speak even basic Russian diverted many jihadists away from the Caucasus. In 1997, Khalid Sheikh Muhammad, mastermind of the 9-11 attacks on New York and Washington, attempted to join Ibn al-Khattab in Chechnya but was unable to traverse Azerbaijan. Other 9-11 hijackers had also considered making Chechnya their destination. According to planner Ramzi Binalshibh, only a chance meeting on contrast essay on videos, a train in Germany with a high-ranking Al-Qaeda operative caused 9-11 hijackers Muhammad Atta, Marwan al-Shehhi, Ziad Jarrah, and Binalshibh to travel to Afghanistan for training instead. In 1997, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Osama bin Laden's deputy, attempted to enter Chechnya but was arrested by Russian police in Dagestan carrying false documents. The Russian police—still unaware of how deep the international Islamist involvement had become—did not recognize him.
They sentenced him to six months, which he served in a Dagestani prison. He later argued that the Chechen conflict could become a strategic linchpin for the jihadist movement in his book, Fursan taht Rayat ar-Rasul ( Knights under the profiling, Prophet's Banner ): The liberation of the Caucasus would constitute a hotbed of jihad (or fundamentalism as the United States describes it) and that region would become the shelter of thousands of Muslim mujahideen from various parts of the Islamic world, particularly Arab parts. This poses a direct threat to the United States, represented by the growing support for the jihadist movement everywhere in the Islamic world. If the Chechens and other Caucasian mujahideen reach the shores of the oil-rich Caspian Sea, the only thing that will separate them from Afghanistan will be the neutral state of Turkmenistan. This will form a mujahid Islamic belt to the south of Russia that will be connected in the east to Pakistan, which is brimming with mujahideen movements in Kashmir. The belt will be linked to the south with Iran and essays on nursery rhymes, Turkey that are sympathetic to the Muslims of Central Asia. This will break the cordon that is struck around the Muslim Caucasus and allow it to essay thesis communicate with the on nursery, Islamic world in general.
Furthermore the liberation of the Muslim Caucasus will lead to the fragmentation of the Russian Federation and will help escalate the jihad movements that already exist in the republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, whose governments get Russian backing against those jihadist movements. Racial Profiling Essay! The fragmentation of the Russian Federation on essay networking, the rock of the racial profiling thesis, fundamentalist movement and at the hands of the Muslims of the Caucasus and Central Asia will topple a basic ally of the United States in its battle against the Islamic jihadist reawakening. Most Chechens do not share Zawahiri's strategic vision; they want only independence from contrast essay on videos Russia. Profiling Essay! The majority of the Chechen population embraces moderate Sufi traditions and shuns the strict religious interpretation and expansionist political goals that Arab jihadists promote. Nevertheless, several prominent Chechen commanders have teamed up with the foreign mujahideen. While some Chechen commanders have been radicalized by years of war, many others have embraced the jihadi ideology only to become the beneficiaries of the funding from wealthy Persian Gulf patrons, much as separatists during the Cold War claimed to be communist in order to obtain Soviet support. As radical Islamists convert Chechens from their indigenous Sufi practices toward extremist Salafi or Wahhabi doctrine, increasing numbers of Chechens are embracing Ibn al-Khattab's views, encouraged by dissertation help, fatwa s endorsing him issued by Al-Qaeda - linked Saudi clerics. They [the Wahhabis] went to racial essay the market and they paid with dollars. There was no power here; there was disorder everywhere, and their influence was very strong, said a Chechen administrator exemplifying the dissertation help jura, Wahhabis' modus operandi in Chechnya. The poor Chechen people were already suffering so much, and our young guys simply couldn't think. They were ready to thesis accept any ideas.
The cycle was self-reinforcing. As Islamism supplanted nationalism as the motivating factor of the Chechen cause, hundreds of Muslim youths from the Middle East and Europe flocked to essays on nursery Chechnya. Racial Thesis! Aukai Collins, a Hawaiian convert to Islam, published an account of fighting in essay on videos Chechnya. Turkey and racial profiling essay, Jordan, both home to large ethnic Chechen populations, saw an intense movement of fighters. Ibn al-Khattab remained the key figure in the spread of international jihad to Chechnya, though. Knowledge of connectors essay his past is the key to understanding the depth of Al-Qaeda's involvement in Chechnya. While in Afghanistan, his trainer and guide was Hassan as-Sarehi, a prominent commander who, with Osama bin Laden, had led the Arab fighters in the Lion's Den operation against Soviet forces, a legendary battle in which foreign mujahideen say they defeated a much larger force. Regardless of the veracity of their claims, the account has served as the basis for the myth of bin Laden. During this period, Ibn al-Khattab reportedly met both bin Laden, whom Ibn al-Khattab described as a good man, and also Al-Qaeda's spiritual leader, Abdullah Azzam.
Such contacts would empower Ibn al-Khattab as he expanded his jihad. Ibn al-Khattab and essay, his followers remained in rhymes Chechnya even after Moscow recognized Chechnya's autonomy. In a 1998 interview, Ibn al-Khattab said, We were asked by the civil and military leadership and the president to train the people because nobody was convinced the profiling essay, Russians would completely withdraw. The Chechen government formed upon the 1996 Russian withdrawal welcomed Ibn al-Khattab's continued presence, even reportedly bestowing a medal on him for rhymes, heroism in the battle for Grozny. Ibn al-Khattab's contribution to the Chechen campaign went beyond his 1995 and thesis, 1996 military contribution. He emphasized the value of propaganda and values of education essay, released dozens of tapes both to frame the Chechen fight as part of a global jihad and to describe the plights of the profiling essay thesis, Chechens and the endeavors of the mujahideen. These tapes were distributed throughout a network of rhymes mosques and constituted an racial profiling essay, unparalleled recruiting tool. Islamists sympathizing with the Chechen cause ran websites that showed images of the fighting and provided information on how to support the mujahideen. Two of the help, best known sites were operated by Babar Ahmad, a British national arrested in London in August 2004 on a U.S. Thesis! criminal complaint alleging that he provided material support to a terrorist organization. Among the values of education, disclosures in racial essay thesis the filing were e-mails linked to the October 23, 2002 seizure of Moscow's Dubrovka Theater, which led to the deaths of online help 160 men, women, and racial profiling thesis, children. Russian intelligence reports and values of education essay, Islamist propaganda videos, many of which are still available in racial thesis bookstores in Europe and the Middle East, suggested that Ibn al-Khattab established several military training and religious indoctrination camps. On Videos! In the three years of calm before the outbreak of renewed conflict in racial Chechnya, Ibn al-Khattab tightened his relation with key Chechen commanders such as Shamil Basayev, with whom he set up a training camp in the village of Serzhen-Yurt. In 1998, Ibn al-Khattab and entrepreneur essay, Basayev created the Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade, which consisted of Chechens, Arabs, and other foreign fighters.
The Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade is one of the three Chechen groups that the U.S. State Department lists as terrorist organizations for its involvement in the Dubrovka theater siege. The mujahideen used the pause in hostilities to prepare for the next attack on Russian forces. In September 1999, suspected Chechen and profiling thesis, Dagestani terrorists blew up apartment buildings in on computer Moscow and in racial profiling the southern Russian city of Volgodonsk, killing 217 people. While Ibn al-Khattab denied responsibility for the theater attack, an armed Chechen incursion into the neighboring Russian republic of Dagestan proved to essay be the last straw. Moscow, already agitated by racial profiling, mujahideen attempts to topics impose Islamic law in several Dagestani villages, interpreted the attack as an invasion of Russian territory. Russian troops poured into racial, Chechnya, launching the second Chechen war, characterized on connectors, one hand by indiscriminate Russian attacks and, on the other hand, by terrorist tactics introduced by the foreign jihadists. For example, while no suicide attack took place in Chechnya before 2000, Chechen suicide bombers have struck repeatedly in more recent years. Black widows, as female Chechen suicide bombers are called, attacked a Moscow rock concert in July 2003, a Moscow subway station the racial profiling thesis, following month, and essay on computer networking, downed two Russian civilian airliners in September 2004. Ibn al-Khattab was killed in March 2002, perhaps by a poisoned letter sent by Russian intelligence. His successor was Abu Walid al-Ghamdi, a Saudi who had been in Chechnya since the late 1990s. Abu Walid emphasized terrorism in Russia rather than guerilla warfare in profiling essay thesis Chechnya. Values! Russia's domestic security agency, the Federalnaya Slozhba Biezopasnosty (FSB) blamed Abu Walid for planning almost all recent suicide bombings in Russia, including the February 2004 Moscow subway bombing that killed more than forty commuters. In April 2004, Russian forces reportedly killed Abu Walid although the racial essay thesis, circumstances of his death remain unclear.
While the identity of Abu Walid's successor is unclear, foreign jihadists remain active in the region. In April 2003, Colonel Ilya Shabalkin, a spokesman for essay, Russian forces in Chechnya, estimated Arabs to essay be about one-fifth of Chechnya's roughly 1,000 active fighters, but they comprise the skilled communications core and provide most of the expertise in mine laying. The migration of jihadists was not one-way. Just as Afghan Arabs traveled to the Caucasus, some Chechens made the opposite trek, traveling to Afghanistan. Essays Rhymes! According to one report, in March 1994, Basayev toured terrorist training camps in the Afghan province of Khost, returning to Chechnya two months later.
According to the State Department, several hundred Chechens trained in Al-Qaeda camps in racial Afghanistan, some fighting there in Al-Qaeda's select military 055 Brigade. In October 1999, emissaries of Basayev and on nursery rhymes, Ibn al-Khattab traveled to Kandahar where bin Laden agreed to provide fighters, equipment, and money to conduct terrorism and aid the racial essay thesis, fight against Russia. Contrast! Later that year, bin Laden reportedly sent substantial sums of money to Basayev, Ibn al-Khattab, and Chechen commander Arbi Barayev to train gunmen, recruit mercenaries, and racial profiling, buy ammunition. Chechnya's International Islamic Support Network. Ibn al-Khattab built a wide network based upon generous funding. Evidence collected by Russian and U.S. authorities suggests that the same sources that financed Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan also supported Ibn al-Khattab and topics, other Chechen commanders. Racial Profiling Essay Thesis! The FSB has identified Islamic charities operating in Chechnya and essay topics, elsewhere in the region.
Al-Haramain, for example, a Saudi-based charity whose assets in the United States have been frozen by the U.S. Treasury Department, operated for years in Russia and Chechnya, pumping US$50 million into profiling essay, mujahideen coffers according to Russian intelligence. In 1997, for example, Al-Haramain financed Dagestani extremist formations of Wahhabist orientation, whose objective was to overthrow the constitutional order existing in the republic and create an Islamic state in the territory of Dagestan and Chechnya. Contrast Essay On Videos! The FSB also reported that Al-Haramain sponsored the Foundation for profiling, Chechnya, which served as a mechanism to supply the mujahideen. Al-Haramain derived a portion of its funds for Chechen operations from American sources. In February 2005, a federal grand jury indicted the essay, Ashland, Oregon branch of the racial profiling essay thesis, charity and two top Al-Haramain officers for various money-laundering offences after a lengthy U.S. Essays Rhymes! Internal Revenue Service investigation that uncovered an alleged scheme by officers of the charity to funnel money in racial profiling thesis support of connectors Chechen jihadists. The Benevolence International Foundation, a Chicago-based charity, also pumped money to Chechen Islamists. According to a U.S. government affidavit filed in a Chicago court: In 1995, Madani al-Tayyib (then in the Sudan serving as Al-Qaida's chief financial officer) asked an Al-Qaida member to travel to Chechnya through Baku, Azerbaijan, to join with Al-Qaida in the fighting in Chechnya. The Al-Qaida member … was told that he would be joining up with Ibn al-Khattab, a mujahideen leader who had worked in Afghanistan with bin Laden. At about racial essay thesis this time, a website used by Chechen mujahideen indicated that Ibn al-Khattab led the Arab contingent of fighters in Chechnya. BIF [Benevolence International Foundation] had been identified on the Internet website as conduits for financial support to those fighters.
The U.S. prosecutor's filing detailed how, in the mid-1990s, the Benevolence International Foundation opened an essay, office in Chechnya and racial essay, worked closely with Sheik Fathi, a Jordanian of Chechen descent, who had fought in values Afghanistan. In 1998, Al-Qaeda military commander Saif al-Islam served as the Benevolence International Foundation officer in Chechnya. The organization's office in Baku kept close contact with the racial essay thesis, Al-Qaeda cell in essay Kenya that bombed the U.S. embassy in Nairobi in August 1998. Until its November 2002 U.S. Treasury designation as a terrorism financier, the profiling thesis, foundation lent material support to Chechen mujahideen in the form of cash and military equipment. An internal memo written by a foundation employee reveals that Vice Prime Minister of the Cabinet of Ministers Khasan Khazutev assured to become an effective conduit to online help pass on the proposed aid, cash … to the mujahideen. Front organizations are just one of the means used by terrorists to smuggle cash into Chechnya. Despite their efforts to stop the money coming from racial thesis abroad, the Russian domestic security agency reports that up to $1 million a month in remittances from Islamists and the Chechen diaspora reaches Chechnya, delivered by contrast, couriers who travel through Georgia. Donations are often sent to Chechnya through hawala , a system used in the Middle East to transfer money informally through a network of couriers and acquaintances, and are, therefore, particularly hard to trace.
Breeding Ground for racial thesis, International Terror. With the loss of their Afghan safe haven, Al-Qaeda operatives scattered. With the help of Islamist charities, many traveled to the Pankisi Gorge, a mountainous area in northern Georgia. In December 2003, for example, an Azeri military court convicted the leaders of Revival of Islamic Heritage, a Kuwaiti humanitarian organization, for sending Azeri recruits to the Pankisi Gorge on online dissertation help, their way to fight in racial essay Chechnya. According to Georgian officials, in early 2002, some sixty Arab computer, communications, and financial specialists, military trainers, chemists, and bomb-makers settled in the gorge.
The group used sophisticated satellite and encrypted communications to support both Ibn al-Khattab's operations in Chechnya and terrorists planning attacks against Western targets. The Pankisi Arabs later tried to buy explosives for what Georgian security officials believe was to have been a major attack on U.S. or other Western installations in Russia. A 2003 plot involving ricin, a virulent and deadly toxin, demonstrated the Islamist co-option of the contrast essay on videos, Chechen nationalist conflict and profiling essay thesis, its transformation into a global jihadist training ground. According to U.S. intelligence sources cited in the Italian indictment, Abu Mussab al-Zarqawi, the Jordanian terrorist alleged to mastermind much of the entrepreneur essay, Iraqi insurgency, dispatched Adnan Muhammad Sadiq (Abu Atiya), a former Al-Qaeda instructor at a Herat, Afghanistan training camp, to Pankisi. In the gorge, Abu Atiya, a Palestinian who had lost a leg during the Chechen war, trained terrorists in the use of toxic gases. He also was behind a 2002 scheme to essay thesis stage biological and online dissertation jura, chemical attacks against Russian or American interests in Turkey. Undeterred by his compromised Turkey plot, in autumn 2002, he tasked a number of Islamist cells from North Africa to travel to Europe to conduct poison and explosive attacks. In December 2002, French authorities arrested four terrorists planning to blow up the Russian embassy in Paris.
According to racial profiling essay thesis the French Interior Ministry, three of the individuals arrested—Merouane Benahmed, Menad Benchellali, and jura, Noureddine Merabet—had fought alongside Chechen mujahideen and had received training in toxic substances from high-ranking Al-Qaeda operatives in the Pankisi camps. The terrorists said they wanted to racial thesis attack the essay on computer networking, Russian embassy to avenge Ibn al-Khattab's death. Information extracted from the detainees in France led investigators to racial another cell in north London, which possessed a stock of ricin. The ensuing investigation led to raids on London's Finsbury Park mosque, a raid in Manchester during which an Algerian terrorist fatally stabbed a British police officer, and arrests in Spain. The global reach of Al-Qaeda's Chechen cells was demonstrated by the fact that the ricin's manufacture was consistent with descriptions in Al-Qaeda manuals and in contrast essay a notebook found by Russian Special Forces during a raid of a Chechen rebel base. According to the Kremlin's spokesman for Chechen issues, Sergei Yastrzhembsky, the ricin investigation showed that Chechnya had become part of a network of international terrorist organizations. In April 2002, the U.S. Defense Department created the racial profiling essay thesis, Georgia Train and Equip Program as part of which U.S. Special Forces trained Georgian troops to enhance … counterterrorism capabilities and address the situation in the Pankisi Gorge. The program officially ended in April 2004 with its success unclear.
While there have been important arrests of Arab jihadists, the February 2003 declaration of the Georgian State Security Ministry that Al-Qaeda had fled the Pankisi Gorge, was premature. In May 2003, Russian deputy prosecutor general Sergei Fridinsky said that about 700 terrorists still operated in essay on computer networking the Pankisi Gorge. In December 2004, despite sustained operations carried out by Georgian Special Forces, Russian authorities claimed that about 200 Chechen and foreign fighters remained in the Pankisi Gorge and even threatened a preemptive strike inside Georgian territory. The Russian claims, which the Georgian government described as strange and essay thesis, irresponsible, appear to entrepreneur topics be motivated by thesis, both genuine concern about the presence of guerrilla fighters on networking, Georgian territory and by racial, Moscow's desire to help jura assert authority over racial essay, Georgia. While small groups of fighters cross between Chechnya and Georgia, it appears that the on computer, Georgian government has been sincere in its efforts to end a massive and constant presence of armed guerrillas on its territory. Racial Thesis! The Georgians claim that Moscow is using the connectors, Pankisi Gorge to threaten them. Such a perception is racial profiling essay thesis, reinforced by the Russian government's refusal to of education essay extend the profiling thesis, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe's renewal of the Georgia Border Monitoring Operation, which, since December 1999, had stationed neutral observers along the essay on computer networking, porous border. Unfortunately, Moscow's tendency to conflate corollary geopolitical concerns with its war on terrorism has allowed its detractors to ignore legitimate grievances with regard to racial essay thesis Islamist infiltration of help Chechen fighters. Terrorist groups have not limited their actions to Chechnya and Georgia.
According to profiling the State Department, Ibn al-Khattab, with Al-Qaeda's financial support, also mobilized mujahideen from Azerbaijan and the Russian republics of Dagestan, Ingushetia, and Ossetia. Moscow is correct in asserting that the Chechen question cannot be contained to the borders of Chechyna. With external financing and subsidized mosques and Islamic schools spreading extremism in areas bordering Chechnya, the spread of Islamism is a real threat. Ibn al-Khattab stated that his goal was the removal of all Russian presence from the on videos, land of Caucasus, implying that he saw Chechnya as a launching pad for a much wider war. The FSB sees the Chechen fighters not [as] nationalists or independence-seekers, [but rather as] disciplined international terrorists, united by a single aim: to seize power and bring in racial profiling thesis a new world order based on Shari'a (Islamic) law. The March 2005 death of Aslan Maskhadov, the entrepreneur essay topics, circumstances of which are still murky, will probably exacerbate the conflict. With Maskhadov's nationalism out of the way, it will be easier for Baseyev and his followers to put a Wahhabi-influenced Islamist stamp on the conflict. U.S. and European officials are slowly realizing the repercussions of hundreds of battle-hardened jihadis just three hours by plane from Western Europe. In the era of global jihad, terrorists operating in the remote mountains of the Caucasus pose the essay, same threat as a cell operating in the heart of any Western European city. Jean Louis Bruguiere, the French magistrate that conducted the investigation on the Chechnya-trained cell that planned to bomb the Russian embassy in Paris, said after the perpetrators' arrests, We have some information that the on computer networking, Caucasus at the present time will play a very major role and could be a new Afghanistan. Western authorities should heed Bruguiere's warning. Chechnya may appear a diplomatic and racial profiling thesis, military quagmire as once did Afghanistan. But the cost of leaving the problem unaddressed can be high.
Chechnya may seem half a world away, but distance is no longer a guarantee of immunity from terror. Lorenzo Vidino is deputy director at essay the Investigative Project, a Washington D.C.-based counterterrorism research institute.  The New York Times , Sept. 12, 2004.  Anatol Lieven, Chechnya, Tombstone of Russian Power (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1998), p. 144.  The Christian Science Monitor , Feb. 26, 2002.  Life and Times of Ibn ul Khattab , a documentary released by Ansaar News Agency, London, 2002, containing footage of Khattab between 1992 and 2002.  U.S.
News World Report , June 10, 2002.  Paul J. Murphy, The Wolves of Islam. Russia and racial essay, the Faces of Chechen Terrorism (Washington: Brassey's Inc., 2004), p. 37.  Yossef Bodansky, Chechnya Fighting to Resume? Defense and essay, Foreign Affairs' Strategic Policy , Nov./Dec. 1996, p. 6.  Interview with an unnamed Chechen leader, The Washington Post , Oct.
10, 1999.  The 9-11 Commission Report (New York: W.W. Norton Co, 2004), p. 149.  Lawrence Wright, The Man behind bin Laden, The New Yorker , Sept. Racial! 16, 2002.
 Ayman al-Zawahiri, Knights under the Prophet's Banner , excerpts in Asharq al-Awsat (London), Dec. 2, 2001, in essay on videos Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report, Near East South Asia , Jan. 10, 2002.  Matthew Evangelista, The Chechen Wars. Profiling Thesis! Will Russia Go the Way of the Soviet Union? (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 2002), pp. 71-3.  Federalnaya Slozhba Biezopasnosty Rossiyy Raspologayet Dostoviernoy Informatziey o Putiakh y Sposobakh Finansovoy Podderszhky Voruzhiennikh Formirovanyy Miezhdunarodnikh Terroristov, Voyuyushikh na Territoryy Chechenskoy Respubliky , report by connectors, the Russian Federal Security Service (hereafter, FSB report), n.d., p. 36.  Evangelista, The Chechen Wars , p. Racial Essay! 73.
 Aukai Collins, My Jihad: One American's Journey through the World of Usama bin Laden—as a Covert Operative for the American Government (New York: Pocket Books, 2002).  Author's interview with a former Russian official, Toronto, Apr. 2004.  For reproduction of the document, see: H-Net* Jihad in Chechnya—Profile of Ibn-ul-Khattab (Untuk Tatapan), A. Help Jura! Razak, 26 Jan 2000, Yahoo Groups, accessed Apr. 1, 2005. This document was accessed in its original from azzam.com, an Islamist website removed after 9-11.  Sheik Abdullah Azzam, The Lofty Mountain (London: Azzam Publications, 2003), pp. 42-8.  Terrorist Designation under Executive Order 13224 Islamic International Brigade, Special Purpose Islamic Regiment, and Riyadus-Salikhin Reconnaissance and Sabotage Battalion of Chechen Martyrs, U.S. Department of State, Feb.
28, 2003; for further details, see Chechen Terrorist Organizations: Statement of Case, The American Committee for Peace in Chechnya, Feb 28, 2003.  Evangelista, The Chechen Wars , pp. 44-5.  Life and racial profiling essay thesis, Times of essay topics Ibn ul Khattab .  Asharq al-Awsat , May 2, 2002; Murphy, The Wolves of essay thesis Islam , p. 37.  http://www.azzam.com and http://www.qoqaz.net. These websites have been taken down following the 9-11 terrorist attacks.  United States Attorney's Office District of essay on videos Connecticut, news release, Aug. 6, 2004.  Life and Times of Ibn ul Khattab .  The Washington Post , Apr.
26, 2003.  Appendix C—Background Information on Other Terrorist Groups, Patterns of Global Terrorism, 2003 , Office of the racial, Coordinator for Counterterrorism, U.S. Essays On Nursery! Department of State, Apr. 29, 2004, accessed Apr. 12, 2005.  Eurasia Overview—Russia, Patterns of Global Terrorism, 1999, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, U.S. Department of State, accessed Apr. 12, 2005.  Interview with Emir Khatab: 'Russians Lie out of Panic,' Kavkaz Center, Grozny, Aug. 31, 2000.  Associated Press, Aug.
30, 1999.  John Reuter, Chechnya's Suicide Bombers: Desperate, Devout, or Deceived, The American Committee for profiling, Peace in of education essay Chechnya, Sept. Racial Profiling Thesis! 16, 2004.  Ash-Sharq al-Awsat , May 2, 2002.  Associated Press, Oct. 6, 2004; The Washington Post , Apr. 19, 2004.  The Washington Post , Apr. 19, 2004.
 U.S. Connectors Essay! Treasury Department, news release, June 2, 2004.  The Washington Post , Apr. 26, 2003.  United States of America v. Racial Profiling Essay! Al-Haramain Islamic Foundation, Inc. Entrepreneur! , no. Racial Profiling Thesis! CR 05, United States District Court for the District of Oregon, Feb. Essays On Nursery! 18, 2005.
 Government Evidentiary Proffer Supporting the Admissibility of Co-conspirator Statements, United States of America v. Enaam M. Arnout , U.S. Essay Thesis! District Court, Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division, 02-CR-892 (N. D. Ill. filed Jan. Contrast! 6, 2003), p. Essay Thesis! 26.  U.S. Treasury Department, news release, Nov. 19, 2002.  Government Evidentiary Proffer, p. 79.  The Washington Post , Apr. 26, 2003.
 Author's interview with a former Russian official, Toronto, Apr. Rhymes! 2004.  Ordinanza di Applicazione della Misura della Custodia Cautelare in Carcere, tribunal of Milan, Italy, Nov. 25, 2003, pp. 24-5.  The Associated Press, Dec. 11, 2003.
 Ordinanza di Applicazione della Misura della Custodia Cautelare in Carcere, pp. 32-3; Time Magazine , Jan. 20, 2003.  Ordinanza di Applicazione della Misura della Custodia Cautelare in Carcere, pp. Racial Thesis! 32-3; Anatolia News Agency, July 10, 2002.  Secretary of State Colin Powell, remarks to the U.N. Contrast On Videos! Security Council, New York, Feb. 5, 2003.  Nicolas Sarkozy, French interior minister, statement, Dec. 27, 2002.
 Agence France-Presse, Jan. 21, 2003.  Agence France-Press, Sept. 12, 2003.  Los Angeles Times , Jan. 18, 2003.  Financial Times , Dec. 21, 2002.  U.S. Department of Defense, news release, Apr. 29, 2002.
 The Washington Post , Oct. 22, 2002.  ITAR-TASS New Agency (Moscow), Feb. 3, 2003.  Nezavisimaya Gazeta (Moscow), Dec. 10, 2004.  Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia, statement, Jan. 17, 2005.  U.S. Department of State, news release , Feb.
3, 2005.  Overview, Mission to Georgia, Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe, accessed Apr. Racial Essay! 3, 2005.  Life and Times of essay Ibn ul Khattab .  The Christian Science Monitor , Feb. 26, 2002.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and profiling Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for essays on nursery, over 20 years. She specializes in profiling essay, helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources.
Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. Topics! I also save you time by giving you links to videos and racial profiling sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and connectors essay science and technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples. Profiling Thesis! 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about essay, makes writing an thesis argument essay easier.
Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to essay topics get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of racial profiling essay thesis, these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in essay, their ways about these issues and it is hard to think of an racial profiling essay thesis argument that might change their minds.
Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the on nursery environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out essay, well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the values of education hunger faced by people around the world?
Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and essay thesis keep it off? Is weight gain caused by dissertation help, genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the racial thesis relationship between food, exercise, and essay on videos weight?
Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to racial profiling essay thesis help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for essays on nursery, a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students?
Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about profiling essay thesis, morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic?
What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for essay on videos, people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on profiling essay Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start.
Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. On Nursery! Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). Racial Essay Thesis! The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of essay, weight and kept it off for long periods of racial essay thesis, time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for contrast, Disease Control and profiling thesis Prevention.
Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to essay networking help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by racial, promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and essay on videos cans in order to promote recycling?
Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for profiling, plastic bags in connectors, order to encourage the profiling use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from essay, earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference?
How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and racial profiling why is essay it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking?
Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the racial profiling best way to handle our trash?
Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and essays on nursery rhymes other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about thesis, environmental issues around the essays rhymes world. Racial! The U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency: On the connectors science and technology page, find research and profiling essay information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and connectors information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work?
How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children?
Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and racial essay how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing?
How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship?
How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to essay real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage?
Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of essay, cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to dissertation act out essay thesis, violently?
Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and entrepreneur essay topics reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft?
Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the racial PC or the on computer networking Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and racial thesis quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively?
SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and on nursery research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and profiling essay easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the online help topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the profiling topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about that topic.
Look back at your question and jura refine your answer. Racial Essay Thesis! After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for essay, the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the profiling essay thesis ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Connectors! Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Profiling Essay Thesis! Do you have to do research for your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for essays rhymes, College Students. by racial, Virginia Kearney 5. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37.
This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Essay! Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of racial profiling thesis, should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from values of education essay, United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years.
I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. Racial Thesis! I don't know what to do at first. I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in online dissertation help, high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to racial essay write an argumentative paper.
Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for making it!
Your tips on essay on videos writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Racial Essay! Hi Nataly!
You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of online dissertation help jura, ways to profiling essay thesis solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on essays rhymes having my students address a very particular audience in thesis, their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the connectors viewpoint of the racial profiling thesis other person and developing points that would persuade that person.
In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is essays on nursery using other sources as well. Racial Profiling Thesis! However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Dissertation Help Jura! Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Essay Thesis! Still, I would rather shift the focus of values, some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of thesis, view of the state and the society. For example, should the values essay state take actions to essay thesis prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and essay food to thesis the starving people around the globe?, etc. On Computer Networking! I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of racial profiling, any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago.
This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on essays on nursery rhymes school campus. Racial Profiling! Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on connectors essay my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States.
Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from racial profiling essay thesis, Australia. Essays! Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the profiling thesis outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in essay networking, a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much!
Thank you it is really helpful. Racial Thesis! Thank you so much for connectors essay, the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Racial Essay! Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.
Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to networking argue about. The less the words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. Essay! What an interesting range of ideas and tips!
Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). Contrast On Videos! I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Racial Profiling Thesis! Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions.
I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on essay on computer networking each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from racial essay, Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of dissertation jura, HubPages, Inc. Profiling Essay! HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and essay advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and racial essay thesis others.
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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and when to racial profiling essay thesis, use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to online help, remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and racial profiling essay thesis, build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to contrast on videos, summarise and paraphrase the work of other writers, the development of profiling, arguments and conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to values essay, support a case. Racial! Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of networking, evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments.
In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of profiling, view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects. Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the essays, functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to thesis, tackle; to develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the interpretations of values of education essay, other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions.
They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for racial, good essay writing. Contrast Essay On Videos! As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and racial essay, communication which will not only of education allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of racial profiling, your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and essay on computer networking, epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the profiling essay thesis, ongoing debates about the philosophy and help, practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in profiling thesis second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of of education, bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians. The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of essay, representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an essays rhymes historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors.
For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is racial thesis a lot more complicated and connectors, a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and racial, form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Values Essay! Writing is profiling thesis easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to essay on computer networking, tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing.
3. Choosing and comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and racial, defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is essay not the outcome or the finished product of learning: it is a vital part of learning. It is thesis a way of sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue. Think about the question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the values of education, contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the racial profiling essay thesis, question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and of education, ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly?
If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the racial profiling essay thesis, question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on the subject content developed in lectures and tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the works of values of education, other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations. They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of essay, examining an issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in essay India. What you will see, however, is racial profiling that all of essay on videos, these writers state a position. They address a problem.
They answer a real or implied question. Racial Profiling! You should trace their strategies for on nursery rhymes, developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem. Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the racial profiling thesis, case which you think emerges most clearly from the entrepreneur topics, evidence and from your critical review of other historians work.
You’ve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out racial profiling thesis some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. Help Jura! You’ve looked again at the major themes of the subject and thought about how you might address them in racial profiling this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to essay on computer, come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion. Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of racial profiling, sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form.
No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the of education essay, evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and racial essay, defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in online dissertation help jura a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of profiling thesis, your notes, or do some further reading to essay on computer networking, clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the racial profiling thesis, basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Topics! Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out essay thesis your argument, for entrepreneur topics, instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and racial profiling thesis, supporting arguments.
introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in of education a romanticised and idealised form explain the thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of thesis, idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and contrast essay, give examples of racial essay, different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of contrast essay, forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the racial profiling essay, different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is values of education respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and racial profiling, argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of natural environments. In the connectors, short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and thesis, may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in contrast essay the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to profiling essay thesis, concentrate on contrast on videos a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is profiling then developed towards its conclusion.
Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and essays on nursery, defended in turn, by showing your interpretation of the profiling, appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the essays, work of other historians, and by racial profiling thesis, using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is connectors introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown. Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Racial Thesis! Painters rarely drew human figures.
If there were humans, nature towered over of education essay them, as in racial profiling essay Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in connectors the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation.
Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Profiling Essay! Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the values of education essay, next stage of the racial profiling essay, argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the essays rhymes, idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and racial profiling essay, bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the essay networking, older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s.
The body of profiling, your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Contrast Essay On Videos! Using different kinds of racial profiling thesis, evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and on videos, the best ways to use them.
Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of racial essay thesis, them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. Online Dissertation Help! An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the problem or issue at essay hand. The distinction is not hard and fast, and entrepreneur topics, there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an racial essay about historians’ representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in contrast essay on videos this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for racial profiling, their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to make decisions about how to use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in entrepreneur essay topics the form of racial profiling essay, summarising. It is values best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the evidence you are using.
If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing. Racial Essay! Refer to essay, the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the racial thesis, actual words are the help jura, single best way of providing the racial profiling essay, evidence and on nursery rhymes, developing your case. If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. Profiling Essay! “You must always use quotation marks to on videos, indicate the separation between your words and racial profiling essay, the words of someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources. It is better to say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to summarise.
Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and essay topics, direct quotation from different kinds of sources to thesis, develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. It is also possible to raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself.
Use your conclusion to argue for the significance of your argument and connectors, your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by racial profiling essay thesis, sweeping speculations on the nature of the connectors essay, universe or the thesis, human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Contrast Essay On Videos! Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of racial profiling thesis, complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. On Computer! Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using.
Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and syntax. A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Racial Profiling Thesis! Spelling, punctuation and on nursery rhymes, grammatical errors detract from an profiling essay thesis argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time. It is entrepreneur topics a reasonable and essay thesis, accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Always read your own work.
what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the contrast essay, strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and racial essay, ask them for more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read? Practice. Like any other set of on videos, skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out racial profiling essay loud . You do not need to comprehend the rules of grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language.
If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to give your essay to someone who is essays not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of racial, other people who can give you feedback.
Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them. Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about essay when to cite sources can be difficult. Profiling Essay! Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in online dissertation help jura the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in racial essay a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know.
Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of rhymes, your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. Racial! There is no need to rhymes, translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to racial essay, put into the body of the essay, then leave it out.
8b. Numbering and essays, placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text. Essay! Put these numbers at values the end of sentences, if at racial profiling essay thesis all possible, and dissertation, distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brackets. If you use material from two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to racial profiling essay, combine the two citations in essay one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to racial thesis, information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of essay on computer networking, nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’.
1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. Thesis! 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to be kept separate from civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of on nursery, sources. The following rules should help you through most situations.
The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the racial profiling essay thesis, Koran and so on. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the essay, information you need to cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by European and profiling, English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to topics, the above in that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and thesis, is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. Values! 54-56. It is now common practice to use full stops only where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the word.
So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is essay Dr, but Professor is entrepreneur essay Prof.. Also, where an abbreviated title is essay used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to essays, refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in profiling essay thesis a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9. The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of essay, document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and essay thesis, date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans.
J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the essay, abbreviation for ‘translated by’.)
If your area of history follows the thesis, MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the essay, same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. Racial! J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M. Essays On Nursery! McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2.
If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the essay thesis, document. If it was not published and essay on videos, has no title (a letter, for instance), there is racial profiling essay thesis no need for any marking. On Videos! For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. Thesis! 23-8. Yves of Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and essay, Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. 185-7.
If you are going to racial profiling essay, be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for rhymes, assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to essay thesis, a specific article, usually by essays on nursery rhymes, an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in essay journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the essay, publisher and the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to racial essay, provide (though see the note below). It is on computer networking important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail. If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp.
98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in profiling thesis America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76. Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the entrepreneur essay, publisher is included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent.
Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in racial profiling thesis editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to essay, which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Racial Essay Thesis! Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to contrast on videos, the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and racial essay thesis, Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and values, Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. Profiling Essay Thesis! 141-55 (p. 153).
(Here ‘pp. 141-55’ indicate the page span of connectors, Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and racial essay thesis, the bracketed ‘(p. 153)’ indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol.
26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Essay! Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and racial profiling essay thesis, Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal. If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p.
390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the online dissertation help, series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program.
Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the profiling essay, document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page.
‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at connectors http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the profiling essay thesis, White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from essay, Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and thesis, WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of essay, any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is not ‘screened’ in profiling thesis any way: it is not edited, reviewed by networking, others, or subject to any control. Racial Essay! This is rhymes its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and essay thesis, makes the task of connectors essay, critically assessing and profiling essay, using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the values, page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the web. Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles.
Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and racial essay thesis, short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in contrast the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Racial Profiling Thesis! Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the contrast, page number.
Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the profiling thesis, reader the amount of information they would need to values, find the material for themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Racial Profiling Thesis! Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of connectors, styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Students in racial profiling the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to topics, use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the profiling thesis, types outlined for history and reference them in footnotes. In the end, it is essay a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography.
Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into racial profiling essay different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the contrast, same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to essay thesis, include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and essays on nursery, order them alphabetically by racial profiling essay thesis, title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in essay examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)).
Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Racial Thesis! Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and connectors, M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by racial essay thesis, the State of entrepreneur, New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Racial Thesis! Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003.
Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and online jura, the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of racial, Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is on computer networking required in the unit. Annotation tells the profiling essay thesis, reader what role a particular source played in on computer developing your argument. Racial Profiling Essay! A statement of essay, two or three sentences is usually ample.
For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for essay thesis, my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in effective communication is values of education essay formatting and racial profiling, presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of of education, clarity, fluency and profiling thesis, organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of communication.
Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of writing is to write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of on videos, that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in thesis Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is connectors essay meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the racial profiling essay, word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on computer, essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and profiling essay, number each page. For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for entrepreneur essay, your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604).
You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the sheet. Racial Profiling Essay Thesis! ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).